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Fortresses in Beijing


Mutianyu Great Wall
Mutianyu Great Wall is located 70 km away from Beijing, which makes it significantly less busy and features some fun, modern amusements, such as a cable car, chairlift, and toboggan. It has unique design and construction, having 3 enemy towers build next to each other. When visiting, each season bring their own beauty to the scenery. From green mountains and flowers to snowy mountain tops tops and autumn leaves.
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Al Jahili Fort
Since opening its gates in 2008, Al Jahili Fort has been a cultural the focal point of activities associated with philosophy and heritage of Abu Dhabi in the Garden City. Al Jahili is one of the largest forts in the UAE and was built in the 1890s on orders from Zayed The First as the home to members of the Al Nahyan ruling family. Between 2007 and 2008, the fort was restored by the Abu Dhabi Authority for Culture and Heritage, who transformed it into a cultural centre and tourist attraction that now houses a permanent exhibition devoted to Wilfred Thesiger, the intrepid explorer, travel writer and photographer, who crossed the Empty Quarter twice in the 1940s, and a temporary exhibition gallery. Surrounded by a lush park, this enchanting fort won the prestigious Terra Award for the best Earthen Architecture in the world in 2016.
Qasr Al Hosn
Qasr Al Hosn is the oldest and most significant building in Abu Dhabi, holding the city’s first permanent structure; the watchtower. Built around the 1790’s, the commanding structure overlooked the coastal trade routes and protected the growing settlement established on the island. Qasr Al Hosn comprises of two major iconic buildings: the Inner Fort (originally constructed in 1795) and the Outer Palace (1939-45). Over the centuries, it has been home to the ruling family, the seat of government, a consultative council and a national archive; it now stands as the nation’s living memorial and the narrator of Abu Dhabi’s history. Transformed into a museum in 2018 following more than eleven years of intensive conservation and restoration work, Qasr Al Hosn is a national monument that encapsulates the development of Abu Dhabi from a settlement reliant on fishing and pearling in the 18th century, to a modern, global metropolis, with displays of artefacts and archival materials dating back to as far as 6000 BC.
Reposaari Fortress
A coastal defence system in Reposaari, Pori, built in the 1930s. Reposaari fortress is a coastal defence system in Reposaari, Pori, built in the 1930s. The fortress is situated in the southern part of the island, west of the Reposaari village. In total, the area covers approximately 20 hectares. The fortress comprises two gun emplacements, two ammunition warehouses, three crew and medical bunkers, fire control post, observation tower and trenches connecting them. The concrete gun emplacements, ammunition warehouses and fire control post are original. The wooden bunkers and an observation tower were rebuilt in the 1990s and 2000s, as were the timber walls of the connecting trenches. The fortress was originally the coastal battery of the Reposaari naval civil guard, and it was built by volunteers in 1935. The construction of the battery was funded by Werner Hacklin, and as far as is known, it is the only privately funded coastal battery in Finland. Its purpose was to protect the port of Pori, as well as the city itself. The battery was controlled by the naval civil guard until the mobilisation of autumn 1939, when the Finnish Defence Forces assumed its control. At the same time, the battery was expanded into a fortress.
Soimos Citadel
The Citadel of Soimos was built after the first invasion of the Tatars and documented since 1278. Soimos Citadel is on the list of historical monuments. From 1278 until 1509, the city was ruled by Ladislau Kan II and Iancu of Hunedoara. In 1509 the citadel and the domain become the property of Gheorghe Hohenzollern of Brandenburg. It was besieged in 1514 by Romanian and Hungarian rebels, led by Gheorghe Doja. After a brief resistance, the garrison of citadel led by Prince of Ciuci is an uprising against people of Gheorghe Hohenzollern and joins the rebels. Turks occupied the citadel in 1552, after repeated sieges, and in 1595 was recaptured by György Borbély - Captain of Stephen Bathory - reaching into custody rulers of Transylvania. In 1599-1600 pass under the rule of Michael the Brave (Mihai Viteazul). The citadel was finally liberated from Turkish domination in 1688.
Fortress of Arad
The Fortress of Arad is a solid fortification system which was built in the 18th century at the orders of, and with the funding from, the Habsburg Empress, Maria Theresa. The cost to complete and erect the fortress reached 3 million Gulden (the currency used by the Habsburg Monarchy at the time). The fortress was built as an inner fortification system to protect the outer region of the Habsburg empire from conflicts in the area. The main conflicts at the time were the ongoing wars between the Habsburgs and the Turkish Ottomans. The location for the fortress was chosen strategically to be at the crossroads of two very important trade routes of the day. It lies in the middle of the trade routes that led from the West to the Transylvania Region, and from the North, Oradea, and Satu Mare, to Timisoara, and down to the Danube waterway.
Belgrade Fortress
Belgrade Fortress stands on top of a cliff overlooking the confluence of the Sava and the Danube. This is the last raised ground in the Balkan Peninsula before the vast stretch of flatland of the Pannonian Basin, extending all the way to Central Europe. The Fortress controls the access to the Pannonian Basin and the navigation on the Sava and the Danube, a position of outstanding strategic importance, accounting for its role as a border fortress throughout much of its history. It served to guard the border between the Roman Empire and barbarian lands across the Danube and the border between the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian Empires, to name a few, which explains why it was so often destroyed, rebuilt and redesigned. The Romans were the first to build a fort at this site in the late 1st century as the HQ for the IV Roman Legion - Flavia Felix. Its remnants are barely visible today. Belgrade Fortress consists of the Upper Town, Lower (or Water) Town and Kalemegdan Park. The present layout of the Fortress took shape in the late 18th century, but there used to be many more buildings within its walls that had perished in different battles.
Lotrscak Tower
Lotrščak Tower is Zagreb’s fortified tower. It was a part of the southern gate and town defences against the Turks, built in 1266. Today, it is one of the last remaining fortifications and one of Zagreb monuments. But wait – there’s more, inside the Grič cannon fires every day exactly at noon. It has been doing that for the last hundred years, as a commemoration of Zagreb’s victory over the Turks. It has become somewhat a tradition, as locals set their watches according to the shot. The tower was overlooking Zagreb defences for years in the past. As a matter of fact, it got its name by the bell, lat. campana latrunculorum (thief’s bell), which rang every night before the gates closed. Today, it is overlooking Zagreb and offers spectacular views from its top. We highly recommend it to all who can climb its narrow steps.
Fort Lovrijenac
Fort Lovrijenac or St. Lawrence Fortress, often called “Dubrovnik’s Gibraltar”, is a fortress and theater located outside the western wall of the city of Dubrovnik in Croatia, 37 m above sea level. Famous for its plays and importance in resisting Venetian rule, it overshadows the two entrances to the city, from the sea and by land. Early in the 11th century the Venetians attempted to build a fort on the same spot where Fort Lovrijenac currently stands. If they had succeeded, they would have kept Dubrovnik under their power, but the people of the city beat them to it. The “Chronicles of Ragusa” reveal how the fort was built within just three months time and from then on constantly reconstructed. When the Venetian ships arrived, full of materials for the construction of the fort, they were told to return to Venice. The Croatian leg of the Red Bull Cliff Diving World Series takes place in Lovrijenac.
Dubrovnik Ancient City Walls
The Walls of Dubrovnik (Croatian: Dubrovačke gradske zidine) are a series of defensive stone walls that have surrounded and protected the citizens of the afterward proclaimed maritime city-state of Dubrovnik (Ragusa), situated in southern Croatia, since the city’s founding prior to the 7th century as a Byzantium castrum on a rocky island named Laus (Ragusia or Lave). With numerous additions and modifications throughout their history, they have been considered to be amongst the great fortification systems of the Middle Ages, as they were never breached by a hostile army during this time period.[2] In 1979, the old city of Dubrovnik, which includes a substantial portion of the old walls of Dubrovnik, joined the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. The oldest systems of fortifications around the town were likely wooden palisades. Today’s intact city walls, constructed mainly during the 12th–17th centuries, mostly a double line, have long been a source of pride for Dubrovnik. The walls run an uninterrupted course of approximately 1,940 metres (6,360 ft) in length, encircling most of the old city, and reach a maximum height of about 25 metres (82 ft). The bulk of the existing walls and fortifications were constructed during the 14th and 15th centuries but were continually extended and strengthened up until the 17th century.
Zakerjan Tower
Kula Zakerjan (Zakerjan tower), is also named Berim Tower. It stands on the north of Korcula Town (see map below) in the Zakerjan area. The tower was built between 1481 and 1483 under the rule of Giovanni Mocenigo who was doge of Venice from 1478 to 1485. The tower is shaped like half-cylinder and has similar crenellation – the distinctive pattern that framed the top of the walls of this medieval tower. On the Northside of the tower, facing Peljesac Channel, there is Venetian coat of Arms of Governor Viaro and Doge Mocenigo. On the Southside, facing Korcula Town, above the arch, there is Tiepolo Coat of Arms. The tower was built by the workshop of Marko Andrijic, the local stonemason. Nowadays, Zakrjan Tower houses popular Massimo Bar that serves drinks on the top of the tower’s terrace.
Klis Fortress
On the steep cliffs of the gorge between Kozjak and Mosor stands the Klis fortress, with one eye facing the sea and another facing Zagora. It was built on an extraordinary strategic location that allows military and commercial control over the whole Klis valley and the area of Salona and Split. Because of its importance, Klis was often referred to as the key to Dalmatia and the heart of the medieval Croatian kingdom. The findings from the Krčina cave are the first traces of the settlement of the area around Klis fortress. It is ceramic pottery in which different forms are imprinted before the baking from which the name Impresso culture is derived, and it lasts from 6000 to 4500 BC on the Adriatic coast. Today we do not know much about the population of those times, but there is a possibility that there were first traces of agriculture in the Adriatic coast. The first population of this area we can accurately identify are the Dalmatians, one of the Illyrian tribes. They inhabited the area from the river Krka to the Neretva, among others the area along the river Jadro (today’s Solinčica beneath Klis). They raised their forts on natural elevations for easier protection from possible attackers. At the foot of Klis fortress, the remains of such settlement were found, and its role was control of the passage between Kozjak and Mosor. Together with the other nearby forts, the hill below Klis controlled access to Illyrian Salona and the mouth of the river Jadro. This role will take on all of the later buildings at this location.
Church Fort of St. Mary
One of the most significant monuments of the island of Hvar is definitely the Church – fort erected in 1571, after the Turkish attack on the location of an older church that originated in 1465. The church has the shape of a fort with an observation post and a loop-hole and from its top, there is a beautiful panoramic view of the surrounding places and fields. The church preserves valuable works of Stefan Celesti ('Lady of Mount Carmel'), Antonio Sciuri ('Mary's Childbirth'), Giuseppe Alabardi ('Resurrection' and 'Placing into the tomb') Marko Rašica ('Lady of Mount Carmel') and Celestin Medović ('Homage of the Three Kings').
Tvrdalj was built as a fort for defence from the Turks by the renowned poet from Hvar Petar Hektorović. It was erected by filling up the sea and one could enter it only over a bascule bridge. In the centre of Tvrdalj, Hektorović designed and built a Romanic park with a fishpond. Tvrdalj has numerous stone inscriptions, but the one saying 'Omnium Conditori' is the most significant one, since, with it, Hektorović dedicated his Tvrdalj to God, the Creator of everything.
Fortress Kamerlengo
Fortress Kamerlengo is situated at the west end of Trogir islet, built by Venetians in Xlll - XV century as a naval base for their navy forces in this part of Adriatic. It is named by town Magistrate Camerarius. Nowadays, the fortress is a multimedia centre with open-air cinema and stage for various cultural events.
Michael's Fortress
St. Michael's Fortress was built on a steep, rocky hill with a beautiful view to the numerous islands of the Šibenik archipelago and the medieval town. Throughout turbulent history, it served as the main point of the city fortification system. Šibenik, the oldest autochthonous Croatian town on the Adriatic, was developed within its walls and first mentioned on Christmas Day of 1066 as the place where the Croatian King Petar Krešimir IV stayed. Most of the preserved ramparts and fortress bastions date from the late Middle Ages and Early Modern Age. The fortress was revitalized in 2014 and has a unique open-air summer stage.
Fort Fortica
If you walk from the square to the north, passing the main city gate or Porta di datallo (Gate of Dates) ascending the stairs through the old part of the city in which there are palaces built in the 15th and 16th centuries, through small bends that give out the aromas of Mediterranean plants, you will reach Hvar's fort Fortica or how the locals call it Španjola. It was built at the beginning of the 16th century (during the Venetian rule) and was reconstructed in 1579. Today the fort holds a collection of amphora and other exhibits from antiquity and the Middle Ages. Besides experiencing its exquisite architecture, you will experience an unforgettable panoramic view of the city of Hvar, its surroundings and the Pakleni islands.
The fort of Monkodonja is located about 5 km south-east of Rovinj, and was discovered in 1953 when the first excavations were carried out. Since 1997, detailed research and a partial architectural reconstruction of the site is being conducted. The town, surrounded by walls, built with blocks of stone with the dry technique is located on a hill and its side terraces that are created with stones quarried and crushed from the hill to give space to the village. The casteliere was inhabited in the period from 2000 until 1200 BC.
Birdoswald Roman Fort
Admire the ruins of this impressive fort where over 800 Roman soldiers lived. This wildlife haven is also a popular stopping point for walkers and cyclists on the Hadrian's Wall National Trail. You can rest your weary legs in the cosy tearoom where you will receive a warm Cumbrian welcome and the chance to learn about Roman life.
Lunt Roman Fort
It's A.D. 60; the Iceni of East Anglia led by the legendary Boudica have rebelled against Roman rule, and have just been defeated in a terrible battle fought somewhere in the Midlands. As a result, the Romans are building a series of fortifications across the Midlands, including the Lunt. Come and explore this partially-reconstructed timber fort. Stand on the ramparts, explore the exhibition in the granary and imagine yourself training horses in the gyrus - a feature not found anywhere else in the Roman Empire. The Lunt Roman Fort is only open during select Coventry school holidays. Please visit for more information about opening hours. Members of the public are not able to access the site during Coventry term times.
Segontium Roman Fort
Established nearly two millennia ago, this strategically-placed fort at the edge of the Roman Empire bustled with life for more than three hundred years. Segontium was founded by Agricola in AD77 after he brutally suppressed a rebellion by the native tribe known as the Ordovices. Designed to hold a 1,000-strong regiment of auxiliary infantrymen, it was linked by Roman roads to the main legionary bases at Chester and Caerleon. Thanks to excavated coins we know the Romans stayed until about AD394 – no other fort in Wales was held so long. Segontium not only controlled access to fertile and mineral-rich Anglesey but later helped defend the Welsh coast against Irish pirates.
Alcazaba Fortress
The Alcazaba, with its 1430 m. walled perimeter is Spain’s second-largest Muslim construction, after the Alhambra Palace in Granada. It was built at the behest of Abderrahman III in the tenth century after the founding of the city. It is a stronghold which housed three campuses; the first two Muslims and one Christian, last built after the conquest of the city by the Catholic Monarchs, which occurred in 1489. The fortress is situated on a hill, overlooking the old centre of the city, the medina. In it, we find a first enclosure where there is a large garden and ponds constructed during the Muslim period. The second area, the vast palatial residence of King Almotacín, stood during the eleventh century. This consisted of a public area, where today are the caliphate wells of the tenth century, a Christian arch of the 16th century. Finally, is the last enclosure of the fortress, Christian, and ordered to be built by the Catholic Monarchs, after the taking of the city. It is a Christian castle within the Muslim fortification.
Alcazar Fortress Cordoba
This building was the royal residence of the Christian monarchs and subsequently the site of the Courts of the Holy Offices, a civil prison, and finally a military prison. It is set among magnificent gardens, including the garden known as the Avenue of the Monarchs which features statues of all the monarchs who had connections with the palace-fortress. It was declared a Historical Monument in 1931. The building is also part of the area declared a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 1994. Since 1986, its gardens have been protected by town planning laws. It stands on top of the remains of the former caliph's palace.