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Castles in Milan

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Sforza Castle
Castello Sforzesco is a surprising monument sheltering several specialized museums and traces of the city’s past. An oasis of art and culture. It was originally a Visconti fortress and later home to the mighty Sforzas, the rulers of Milan, who transformed it into a magnificent ducal palace thought to have been decorated by several of the greatest artists of the times including Donato Bramante and Leonardo da Vinci. Transformed into a military complex during four centuries of foreign occupation and subsequently used as the barracks of the Italian army, at the end of the 19th century the Castle was restored by architect Luca Beltrami who turned it into the headquarters of Milan’s Civic Museums. Today the Castle sits in all of its glory in the eponymous square with its 70m-tall “Torre del Filarete” and a number of majestic circular keep-towers.
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Baron Gamba Castle
Gamba Castle Built at the beginning of the 1900s from the designs of the engineer Carlo Saroldi, it was commissioned by Charles Maurice Gamba, husband of Angélique d‘Entrèves, daughter of Count Christin d‘Entrèves. Since 1982 it has been the property of the Valle d’Aosta Autonomous Region. After a complex restoration, today the castle houses an exhibition route that winds through 13 rooms, displaying over 150 works of art such as paintings, sculptures, installations, drawings and photographs belonging to a regional collection dating back from the end of the nineteenth century to the present day. Alongside the works of the 20th-century masters, including sculptures by Martini, Mastroianni, Manzù, Arnaldo and Giò Pomodoro, and paintings by Casorati, De Pisis, Carrà and Guttuso, the collection documents Italian figurative art produced from the second half of the century up to contemporary study exponents, such as Schifano, Baruchello, Rama and Mainolfi. A vast and varied selection of works testifies to the movements that have animated the Italian art scene over the past 25 years: for example, the exhibition hosts representations of Informal art, Geometric abstraction, Transavantgarde and Pop art. Particular importance is given to Valle d’Aosta region through the activity of local artists, or those active in Valley, on regional commission. For visitors seeking both learning and distraction, the exhibition offers a series of services designed to bring different groups of visitors (families, adults, schools, children, young people) closer to modern and contemporary art through workshop activities, guided tours and events.
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Buonconsiglio Castle
The Buonconsiglio Castle is the largest and most important monumental complex of the Trentino Alto Adige region. It was the residence of the prince-bishops of Trento from the 13th century to the end of the 18th century, and is composed of a series of buildings of different eras, enclosed by walls and positioned slightly higher than the city. Castelvecchio is the oldest nucleus, dominated by an imposing cylindrical tower; the Magno Palazzo is the 16th century expansion in the Italian Renaissance-style as commissioned by the Prince-Bishop and Cardinal Bernardo Cles (1485-1539); the Baroque-style Giunta Albertiana dates from the end of the 17th century. At the extreme south of the complex is the Torre Aquila, within which is conserved the famous Cycle of the Months, one of the most fascinating secular pictorial cycles of the late Middle Ages. Also of exceptional interest are the extensive cycle of frescoes commissioned by the bishops to decorate the interior walls of the Castle, mainly in the late Middle Ages to the Renaissance period.
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Waldegg Castle
Just in front of the gates to Solothurn, the castle of Waldegg is located in a beautiful spot with baroque garden and marvellous panorama view. As one of the many aristocratic country estates in Solothurn, it's however the most representative and spacious. The 78 meter-long facade is an extraordinary and most impressive aspect from a Swiss point of view – and Waldegg castle was built between 1682 and 1686 as a summer residence for Johann Viktor I of Besenval. The castle and premises today represent one of Switzerland's most fascinating estates. The splendour and charisma of the Waldegg castle is matchless throughout the country; with a shrewd mix of French and Italian stylistic elements blended with the strict architecture of a typical Solothurn castle manor. Between 1985 and 1991 the castle was renovated and today, first and foremost, portrays the aristocratic lifestyle pertaining to the 18th century. The exhibition focuses on the construction history of the castle, together with the family history of the Besenvals and the French Ambassadors in Solothurn.
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The Vizille Estate
The Vizille Estate is first and foremost a chateau that played a key role in history and a landscaped park that has been classified as a “Remarkable Garden.” But it’s also the only museum dedicated to the French Revolution that brings together so many valuable works. Set foot in this historic and natural landscape. Inside the park, you will be able to admire the tremendous ornamental lake which often served as a playground for swans, ducks, and even herons. Along the banks, you will discover the French-style gardens and magnificent rose gardens. An animal park is a home to stags, deer, and roes roaming together more or less freely. With 100 hectares of protected natural landscapes, the gardens of the Vizille Estate bring together human history and wild nature. It is, for sure, the ideal place to play, stroll, and dream.
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Trausnitz Castle
The castle, located above Landshuts and visible from afar, has only been called "Trausnitz" since the 16th century. Until then, it had the same name as the city itself. According to this, the castle was to grant the country "protection" and protection. Under Ludwig the Kelheimer, the founder of Burg and Stadt Landshut in 1204 and an important historical figure at the time of the Crusades, the Wittelsbach main castle had grown to the extent of today's core castle. In 1235, when Emperor Friedrich II was visiting Landshut, the castle was essentially completed. Today the tour takes visitors to the castle through medieval halls such as the impressive vaulted hall of the Alten Dürnitz and the castle chapel with their important sculptural decoration and the winged altars of the rich dukes. Arched cabinets, panelled parlours and the famous stairway with the monumental painted scenes from the Italian Commedia dell'arte represent the era of the Renaissance. The culmination of the castle tour is the view from the Söller on the city.
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Castel Sant Angelo
Known as Hadrian's Tomb, the Castel Sant'Angelo is a fortress located on the right bank of the Tiber, a short distance from the Vatican City. Construction of the building began in the year 135 under the direction of the Emperor Hadrian, who intended to use it as mausoleum for himself and his family. It was finished in the year 139 and a short time later, it became a military building, which in the year 403 would be integrated to the Aurelian Walls. The Castel Sant'Angelo is split into five floors which can be reached by a spiral ramp that first reaches the chamber of ashes and subsequently the cells in which a number of historical figures were incarcerated. Advancing toward the upper part of the castle you will find different rooms that functioned as a Papal residence, decorated with perfectly preserved frescoes from the Renaissance period, besides the extensive collection of weapons. In the upper floor there is a large terrace where you can take amazing photographs of the city from above. Advancing toward the upper part of the castle you will find different rooms that functioned as a Papal residence, decorated with perfectly preserved frescoes from the Renaissance period, besides the extensive collection of weapons. In the upper floor there is a large terrace where you can take amazing photographs of the city from above.
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Circular walk "Vauban Luxembourg"
The Vauban Circular Walk, named after the French fortress builder Sébastien le Prestre de Vauban (1633-1707), leads the visitor through one part of the fortifications of the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. Guided visits for groups up to 25 people on request. Circular walk also accessible without guide.
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Former Castle of the Counts of Luxembourg
The name Luxembourg was first mentioned in 963 when count Siegfried exchanged lands for a small fortified castle by the name of Lucilinburhuc. Throughout the Middle Ages, the House of Luxembourg considerably extended its territory and power. Between 963 and 1443 Luxembourg was independent, at first as a County, then since 1354 as a Duchy. In the 14th Century and the first half of the 15th Century, four Holy Roman Emperors and four Kings of Bohemia came out of the House of Luxembourg. Thanks to its strategic position in Europe and its formidable fortress - referred to as “Gibraltar of the North” - Luxembourg was much coveted. Thus -between 1443 and 1815- the castle of Siegfried had to endure a succession of Burgundian, Spanish, French and Austrian rulers who each shaped the fortress and the surrounding countryside. After the defeat of Napoleon, the Powers of the time gathered at the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to reorganise Europe. Due to the importance of the fortress they decided to create a new country around the fortified castle on the Bock: the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.
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Medvednica Sljeme
Medvednica Sljeme is a rare example where a nature park is merging with a capital city. In the past, Medvednica provided protection with its castles. As well, it was the source of life because it provided residents with wood, coal, salt, stone, silver and water. Sljeme is the highest mountain peak on Medvednica but is often used to refer to the entire mountain. The mountain is filled with springs and streams, forests, mountain meadows and wildlife. Only a short drive from the city centre of Zagreb. For this reason, today, locals find it as an escape from city life. There are 20 archaeological sites in the Nature Park. Ranging from Prehistoric Period down to the late Middle Ages. At the same time, there are 60+ registered cultural properties. Which testifies to the Parks abundance of cultural heritage. With its Castles and manor houses, Medvednica was both a protector and a tyrant to locals. While the castles were made to protect, their lords used its strategic position to terrorise and pillage the locals. The legend of the Black Queen of Medvedgrad speaks of this.
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Castle of Vianden
Vianden Castle was built between the 11th and 14th Century on the foundations of a Roman castle and a Carolingian refuge. This Castle-Palace bears the Hohenstaufen characteristics and is one of the largest and finest feudal residences of the Roman and Gothic eras in Europe. Until the early 15th Century it was home to the powerful Counts of Vianden who could boast of their close connections to the German Imperial Court. The greatest of them, Count Henry I (1220 -1250) was even married to a member of the Capetian family, which ruled France at the time. In 1417, the castle and its lands were inherited by the younger line of the German House of Nassau, which -in 1530- also acquired the French principality of Orange. The castle's most remarkable rooms; the chapel as well as the small and the grand palaces were built in the late 12th and the first half of the 13th Century. In 1890 the castle became the property of Grand Duke Adolphe of the elder line of Nassau and remained in the hands of the Grand Ducal family until 1977 when it was transferred into state ownership. It has been painstakingly restored to its former glory and today ranks among the most significant historical monuments of Europe.
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The Old Town Varazdin
At the northern edge of the historical centre of Varaždin separated from the city by embankments and moat, is the Old Town Castle of Varaždin. This military fortress was unassailable from the outside due to the moat which was fed by the river Drava canal and the cannons inside the walls that in some places were 2.5 metres thick. Inside is the Old Town’s Renaissance Palace, whose aristocratic owners have continually changed and adjusted it to suit their tastes from the 13th to the 19th Century. Today the entire Old Town is the Varaždin City Museum. Former illustrious owners include the Counts of Celje, Jan Vitovac, Ivaniš Korvin, Juraj Brandenburg, Counts Ungnadi and many others. The Erdödy Family ruled the City for the longest time, and the first owner was the famous General Tomo Bakač Erdödy, who defeated the Turks at Sisak in 1593. The Old Town was the Capital of the Varaždin County, and the Erdödy family were its hereditary governors. That’s why their family coat of arms which was officially confirmed by Queen Maria Therese in 1763, is still in use. The last owner of the Town sold it in 1923. The Varaždin City Museum was founded by the Varaždin Museum Society and officially opened in 1925 in a few rooms in the Old Town. Initially, the displays consisted of items donated to the newly opened museum by renowned Varaždin families. Over the years, the size and variety of the Museum Collection have increased, and today the Varaždin City Museum has specialized Archaeological, Historical, Cultural, Ethnographic and Entomological Departments. Museum Departments are housed in several buildings of historical value in the center of the City: the Gothic-Renaissance fortress Old Town, the baroque Sermage, the classical Herzer Palace and the Watchtower in the Old Town complex. The Museum’s Departments currently have four permanent exhibitions including: the Cultural and Historical Department in the Old Town, Entomology in Herzer Palace and the Gallery of Old and Contemporary Masters in the Sermage Palace. The Archaeological and Historical Department in the Herzer Palace is currently being prepared and is almost ready to open permanently.
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St Nicholas Fortress
St Nicholas' Fortress at the entrance to the St Anthony's Channel in Šibenik represents a unique Renaissance building of Venetian fortification architecture and an exceptional monument of the world’s architectural heritage. It was constructed on the islet of Ljuljevac, where once was the Benedictine monastery of St Nicholas, after which the fortress was named. The construction of the fortress, based on Gian Girolamo San Micheli’s design, commenced in 1540 after the fall of Skradin under the Ottoman rule, when the Venetians were forced to strengthen the defence of Šibenik port, which was the most important port on the east coast of the Adriatic Sea
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Barone Fortress
Barone Fortress was built immediately after the St. John's fortress before the Ottoman army arrival during the Cretan War. Today you can experience this event through the technology of a so-called extended reality that revives the characters, sounds and scenes of the 17th-century Šibenik. It was built by order of Baron Christophe Martin von Degenfeld, a main commander of the city defence, after whom the fortress was named. It was initially built as a small fortress (ridotto) in order to obtain the final shape in 1659 during the rule of governor-provveditore Antonio Bernardo
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Fortress Kamerlengo
Fortress Kamerlengo is situated at the west end of Trogir islet, built by Venetians in Xlll - XV century as a naval base for their navy forces in this part of Adriatic. It is named by town Magistrate Camerarius. Nowadays, the fortress is a multimedia centre with open-air cinema and stage for various cultural events.
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Trogir City Museum
The Trogir Museum was opened in 1966 within a unique complex of several palaces and houses owned by the Garagnin-Fonfogna family since the 18th century. The first small room accommodates a late Greek relief "Woman at Work" (2nd- 1 st century BC), and the replica of Kairos (4th-3rd century BC), as well as the prehistorical finds from the Trogir surroundings and the fragments of ceramics and glass from the Greek period. The Roman period is represented by the finds from the graves (fragments of a helmet, money, amphoras, urns) and stone reliefs and fragments discovered during archaeological excavations near Trogir. The second, large hall with a three-light window presents the medieval Trogir through the documentation on the development of the autonomous commune. The first printed city Statute from 1708, which actually governed the city public life already in the 14th century, and the city seal rings are on display in this hall. The original minutes of the City Council sessions from 1316 are displayed, along with major documents on parchment, and the Venetian money used in the provinces of Dalmatia and Albania. Ivan Lucic's "De Regno Dalmatiae et Croatiae", the major medieval Croatian work published in Amsterdam in 1666 is here, along with the matricula of the All Saints brotherhood from 1573, and the testimony on Venetian-Turkish war contained in the memoirs of Koriolan Cipiko (1477).
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Karlstejn Castle
Karlštejn Castle was founded in 1348 by the Charles IV, King of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor as his private residence and a place of safekeeping royal treasures, especially his collections of holy relics and the Imperial Crown Jewels. In 1355 Charles IV stayed here for the first time, overseeing the construction and decoration work, especially in chapels. The construction was completed in 1365 when the Chapel of the Holy Cross in the Great Tower was consecrated. Over the centuries the castle has always been in hands of the king or a state institution, never in private hands. Nowadays it is owned by the state. Very impressive is the preserved original stair-arrangement of individual castle buildings. The lower section with a small courtyard by the Well Tower and the Burgrave´s House continue through the majestic five-storey Imperial Palace and the Marian Tower. At the highest point, the construction of the castle culminates in a monumental, 60-meter-high Great Tower and its massive fortifications. A unique original 14th-century wall decoration, a set of 129 paintings created by Master Theodoric in the Chapel of the Holy Cross (the largest in the world), the largest portrait gallery of kings of Bohemia in the Czech Republic, a replica of the royal Crown of Bohemia, a unique castle well. The castle is also famous as a set to a comedy play Night at Karlštejn Castle by Czech poet Jaroslav Vrchlický.
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Tvrdalj
Tvrdalj was built as a fort for defence from the Turks by the renowned poet from Hvar Petar Hektorović. It was erected by filling up the sea and one could enter it only over a bascule bridge. In the centre of Tvrdalj, Hektorović designed and built a Romanic park with a fishpond. Tvrdalj has numerous stone inscriptions, but the one saying 'Omnium Conditori' is the most significant one, since, with it, Hektorović dedicated his Tvrdalj to God, the Creator of everything.
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Prague Castle
Which is the largest castle in the world? The one in Prague of course! You can wander around its courtyards, palaces, museums and garden all day long and whilst doing so, admire the overwhelming beauty of a place which has been the seat of Czech kings, emperors and presidents for a thousand years. The whole castle grounds are dominated by the monumental St. Vitus Cathedral, which is one of the most beautiful in Europe. Discover the secret of this symbol of the Czech Republic and a place which makes Prague one of the most beautiful cities in the world.
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The Trazegnies Castle
Trazegnies was the seat of a powerful seigniory and the cradle of one of the most illustrious families in Europe. Trazegnies' family possessed a castle worthy of her. Over the centuries, the castle has undergone a great many transformations. The splendid main building is a jewel in Belgium’s crown and is almost unique in the country, displaying architecture in the style of Louis XIII. The Romanesque cellars still survive today from the primitive manor, a rare testimony of the 11th century. Today, part of the castle is available for hire for different events: seminars, buffets and much more.
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Veveri Castle
The castle was held in possession of various noblemen and its history is interwoven with a number of myths and legends. Today it is a venue of various cultural and social events. At the foot of the castle there is a steamboat stop.
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Site of Folleville
Remains of a medieval castle and church, with UNESCO World Heritage status due to their connection with the Santiago de Compostella pilgrim way. The church houses the striking tombs of the Lords of Folleville in Carrara marble, an example of the Italian Renaissance having spread as far as Picardy. Below the castle is a village where traces of its past and its setting are reconstituted.
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Spilberk Castle
A prison shrouded in horrific legends, valuable historical collections, a beautiful view over the city and many cultural events held throughout the year – all of this is Špilberk Castle. One of the two most important dominant features of the Moravian capital and a place which became synonymous with the most horrific of dungeons throughout the whole of Europe is nowadays one of the most valuable monuments in Brno. Špilberk’s importance and role changed fundamentally over the course of the centuries. This leading royal castle and seat of the Moravian margraves, gradually transformed into a monumental Baroque fortress, the toughest prison of the Austrian monarchy and later a military barracks. Nowadays it is home to Brno City Museum and one of the most important cultural centres in the city.
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Picquigny Castle
Take a fresh look at history in the ruined castle of Picquigny. All year round escape game rooms in total historical immersion help you understand fragments of the history of this castle. In summer Picquigny castle is open to the public in the afternoon. Use our well written, illustrated guide to exploring the many facets of this site at your own pace. Treasure hunt for youngsters. In summer there are unusual torchlight tours on Friday evenings or at other times for groups (book ahead). School groups and school holiday leisure centre groups are welcome from April to August for a full or half-day - group workshops (heraldry, illumination, calligraphy, treasure hunt). escape game or torchlight tour. Team building and other private events can be organised with medieval meal and activities and/or escape game. Standing high above the Somme valley for many centuries, the ruins of Picquigny castle are both imposing and picturesque. Climb up to the barbican gate, once a drawbridge, to get a real idea of the castle's past greatness. The tall imposing façade of the main building is truly striking. Then walk along the fortifications to the Gard gateway, the Renaissance style Sévigné wing and the collegiate church open in summer. The Sévigné wing was so named in honour of Madame de Sévigné, a famous woman of letters, who stayed for four days in Picquigny castle in April 1689. When writing to her daughter, Mme de Sévigné compared the castle to that of Grignan and mentioned the river Somme. "After dinner, we arrived here at a mansion that displayed all the pride of the heiress of Pecquigni. It is an old house built on an eminence above the town, like Grignan; a fine chapter, as at Grignan, a dean and twelve canons: I know not whether the foundations be as handsome but there are terraces on the borders of the river Somme which winds in a thousand meanders through the fields, which indeed are not to be found at Grignan.
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Castle of the Counts
A weekend trip to Ghent is simply not complete without a visit to the mysterious ‘Castle of the Counts’. This important sight in Ghent is a castle with a very turbulent past, closely intertwined with the complex—often stormy—political and social history of the city. It is the only remaining mediaeval castle with a moat and largely intact defence system in Flanders. Your visit to the Castle of the Counts will give you a complete picture of heraldic culture in the 12th century. The gatehouse, ramparts, keep, count’s residence and stables are open to visitors. The Castle of the Counts boasts a unique collection of torture equipment. What used to be the pantry now features the torture equipment, which is displayed in a suggestive executioner's cabinet. The former courtroom features the collection of judicial objects. The Castle of the Counts also hosts all kinds of cultural activities, events and activities, for example during the Ghent Festivities. It is also a popular place to get married for Ghent’s locals. Let’s not forget the time the Castle of the Counts was occupied by protesting students in 1949! Explore the castle during your weekend trip in Ghent and find out all about the ‘Battle of the Castle of the Counts’.
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Fisherman s Bastion
The main façade of the Fisherman’s Bastion, running parallel to the Danube, is approximately 140 metres long. The seven stone towers with their pointed tops symbolise the leaders of the Hungarian tribes who conquered the country in 896. It was built in place of the old fortification walls in neo-Romanesque style between 1895 and 1902 on the plans of Frigyes Schulek, who was also in charge of the reconstruction of the Mathias Church. The Bastion takes its name from the guild of fishermen that was responsible for defending this stretch of the city walls in the Middle Ages.
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Buda Castle
Royal Palace – Buda Castle is the historical castle and palace complex of the Hungarian kings in Budapest and was first completed in 1265. The first, Gothic style royal palace was built during the reign of Louis the Great, King Sigismund and King Matthias (from the middle of the 14th century until the end of the 15th). It became a royal residence of European rank, with its Gothic and Renaissance elements. Buda was occupied by the Turks in 1541, and it was only retaken during the Christian siege of Buda in 1686. In WWII, the palace and the Castle District were the last refuges of the Germany Army, which fell under heavy siege from the invading Soviet Army. The palace was again damaged; reconstruction started in the 1950-s. Leading architects of the age have announced that they wanted to return to the 18th-century Baroque form of the palace, and at the same time keep its 19th-century dimensions. They constructed a Baroque façade that never existed before. This was because 20th-century architects saw no value in an eclectic style, although this is now considered to be the most valuable aspect of Budapest’s buildings.
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Upnor Castle
Situated on the banks of the River Medway, this attractive turreted castle is set in a picturesque village area backed by rolling, wooded hills. Upnor Castle was originally built on the orders of Queen Elizabeth I in 1559 as a gun fort to defend her warships at anchor in the reaches of the Medway and Chatham Dockyard. Although the castle was an important link in the defence line, it was not well maintained and proved ineffective when the Dutch, under the command of Admiral de Ruyter, sailed up the Medway in June 1667 to attack the dockyard. The enemy fleet met very little resistance and when it left two days later, it had destroyed or captured a large number of the Royal Navy ships anchored at Chatham.
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Castle of La Mota
Monte Urgull is a natural area in the centre of San Sebastián that affords fabulous views of the sea and the city. Witness to the wars suffered in their long history by the people of San Sebastián, a structure of ancient paths and fortifications can still be found on Monte Urgull today, including the splendid La Mota Castle. In times of Sancho the Great, King of Navarre, the first defencive lookout point and San Sebastian's early walls were built. The date was around 1150. That first castle was a classic rock top construction, square, with a tower of each of the four corners and a keep to the rear. It was suffered numerous transformations over the years, just like the other fortifications on Monte Urgul.
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Norwich Castle
Featuring never-before-seen archives and artefacts from Norwich Castle’s 900-year history, including a wealth of new research uncovered by the Norwich Castle: Gateway to Medieval England project to transform the Keep, the exhibition shows this majestic landmark in a fascinating new light. Standing atop the largest man-made mound in the country, Norwich Castle has dominated the City’s skyline ever since the 12th century; but what is the story of Norwich’s iconic and much-loved square box on the hill? Built as a royal palace, Norwich Castle was a Norman showpiece with lavishly-decorated interiors fit for a king. By the 14th century, it had become the County Gaol confining Norfolk’s prisoners within its walls. With the opening of the new prison at the end of the 19th century, the Castle’s fate was uncertain, until its conversion into a public museum, which it remains to this day. The Square Box on the Hill illustrates this rich history through a stunning mixture of prints, models, paintings, architectural plans and memorabilia, many of which have never been on display before. Supported by headline sponsors Brown&Co, the exhibition also showcases the latest exciting plans for the Castle’s future as part of the Norwich Castle: Gateway to Medieval England project, supported by the Heritage Lottery Fund.
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Windsor Castle
No trip to Windsor could possibly be complete without a visit to amazing Windsor Castle, the family home to British kings and queens for over 1,000 years. The size of the Castle (5.3 hectares/13 acres) is breathtaking, in fact, it is the largest and oldest occupied castle in the world and it’s where Her Majesty The Queen chooses to spend most of her private weekends. You might even time your visit when she is in residence! Look at the flag flying from the Castle’s Round Tower; if it’s the Royal Standard The Queen will be there too. Over the past few years, the Royal Collection Trust has been busy transforming the experience of visiting Windsor Castle, and visitors are already enjoying many improvements to the visitor experience. The Moat Room, a new introductory space, now tells the story of the Castle’s 1,000 years of history. Windsor Castle’s Inner Hall, created by George IV in the 1820s as a space to receive official guests, has been restored and opened to the public. Now, for the first time since its closure by George’s niece, Queen Victoria, the Inner Hall serves its original purpose as a magnificent welcome area for visitors to the Castle. The medieval Undercroft has now been transformed into the Castle's first permanent café.
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Oxford Castle & Prison
Come and explore the 1,000-year history of Oxford Castle and Prison. Step back in time with our costumed guided tours and see fascinating stories come to life. Hear the great tales of Empress Matilda or the fate of Mary Blandy, one of the prisons’ most famous criminals. Step inside our padded jail cell and meet the notorious ‘Black Panther’, a vicious prisoner held here in the 1970s. Find gorgeous views atop of St. George’s Tower and then descend into the atmospheric crypt of St Georges Chapel. Here you can touch the stones were Oxford University was rumoured to begin and stand in the birthplace of King Arthur. Explore the austere confines of the prisons’ D-Wing and debtors tower, here you can wander the cells and learn about our youngest inmates. After your guided tour, you can climb the mound, the remains of a motte and bailey castle. Explore the attraction at your own leisure and dress up like a prisoner in our exhibition space. Sit down with a nice cup of coffee in our café, spread out your map and plan where to go next in Oxford. In the summer, we have Knight School, a medieval-inspired workshop which trains children into becoming little warriors. Our Shakespeare Festival is an Oxford summer staple whilst Ghost Fest is sure to give you a scare over Halloween.
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Fortress Kale
The Skopje Fortress commonly referred to as Kale Fortress, or simply Kale (from kale, the Turkish word for 'fortress'), is a historic fortress located in Skopje, the capital of the Republic of Macedonia. It is situated on the highest point in the city overlooking the Vardar River. The fortress is depicted on the coat of arms of Skopje, which in turn is incorporated in the city's flag. The first fortress, according to research and available data, is believed to have been built amidst the 6th century A.D., on land that had been inhabited during the Neolithic and Bronze ages or roughly 4000 B.C. It was constructed with yellow limestone and travertine and along with fragments of Latin inscriptions, asserts the idea that the fortress originated from the Roman city of Skupi, which was completely destroyed by an earthquake in 518. The fortress is thought to have been reconstructed during the rule of emperor Justinian I and constructed further during the 10th and 11th centuries over the remains of emperor Justinian's Byzantine fortress which may have been destroyed due to a number of wars and battles in the region, such as that of the uprising of the Bulgarian Empire against the Byzantine Empire under the rule of Peter Delyan. Not much is known about the Medieval fortress apart from a few documents which outline minor characteristics in the fortress' appearance.
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Rzeszow Castle
The Rzeszów castle is undoubtedly one of the most interesting monuments of the city - not only because of its history, but also because of the fact that it is an interesting testimony to conservation thought from the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, when its present form was created. The castle was located south of the city, in the village of Staroniwa, at the end of an elongated loess headland surrounded on three sides by water obstacles: the Wisłok River and ponds or swamps. The intersection of this promontory with a moat substantially strengthened the defense of this place. In this area, during archaeological research, traces of prehistoric settlement (in the area of ​​the northern curtain of the bastion fortifications) and late-medieval (on the southeast bastion) were found. At present, the hypothesis about the existence of a defensive court, mentioned in the document from 1447, regarding the division of property between Jan and Stanisław Rzeszowski is unlikely to be verified, but this hypothesis is very likely.