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Architecture in Izmir

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Turkey
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Church of Saint Polycarp
St. Polycarp Church is the oldest structure of İzmir which is founded in the area where Konak District is located on the Mediterranean Side, Kazim Dirik Caddesi, Necatibey Boulevard and Gazi Osman Money Boulevard.
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Kadifekale
The city, which was founded in the 4th century BC, has remnants of Helen, Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman periods. Kadifekale is on a hill 186 meters high south of the city. It is reported that Amazon women who lived in Kadifekale, formerly "Pagos", descended from the foothills of the mountain and continued their dominance here for many years.
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Ephesus
The ancient city of Ephesus is Turkey’s most important ancient city, and one of the best-preserved and restored. One can still stroll for hours along its streets passing temples, theatres, libraries, houses and statues. It contains such grand public buildings as the impressive Library of Celsus, the theatre, the Temple of Hadrian and the sumptuous Temple of Artemis which is considered one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The ruins also include public toilets and even a brothel dating mostly from the fourth century BC. Ephesus is particularly important for faith tourism as it contains the House of the Virgin Mary. It is believed that the Virgin Mary was taken to this stone house by St John, where she lived until her death at the age of 101. The Church of the Virgin Mary, close to the original harbour of Ephesus, was the setting for the Third Ecumenical Council in 431. Two other religious sites worth visiting are the Basilica of St John, built in the sixth century, and İsa Bey Mosque, which is a sample of Seljuk architecture. Ephesus is not just a touristic site. It is home to the International İzmir Festival utilizing its grand amphitheatre, Celsus Library and the House of the Virgin Mary.
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Monastery of Agia Zoni
In the verdant valley of Vlamari at approximately 2 km. from the town of Samos stands the monastery of Agia Zoni (Cincture of Virgin Mary), built in 1695. Inside the monastery one will find frescoes preserved from the 17th century and a remarkable library with patriarchal documents and precious objects.
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The Temple of Hera
According to Greek mythology, the goddess Hera was born in Samos. There are still remaining ruins of her temple – only one pillar is standing, about half of its original height – close to the south coast of the island. Heraion had been established since the Geometrical period as a sacred place and remained such until the Roman era. It is a dipteral Ionic temple with 115 colossal columns.
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Bodrum Castle
One place of Bodrum that no visitor to this great city should miss is the famous Bodrum Castle, which overlooks the harbour and the international marina. This castle was constructed by the Knights of Rhodes in the 15th century during the crusades of the middle ages, and it was given the name The Castle of St. Petrus, or Petronium. Occupying over 30.000 square feet at its base, construction of this castle took years to complete. The castle was built partly from the left remains of the mausoleum of Mausolus which had collapsed as the result of an earthquake. The huge exterior walls were designed in the early 15th century by the German architect Heinrich Schlegelholt and were strengthened by five towers known usually as the English tower, the Italian tower, the German tower, the French tower and the Snake tower. The French tower of the castle is thought to be the earliest one with the others being added during the following century. After the French Tower, The Italian tower was built in 1436 by Italian architect Angelo Mascettola. The final parts of the castle were erected in the time of Pierre d’Abusson between 1476 and 1593, with the English tower being added at around 1480. Towers of the St. Peters Castle, BodrumThe walls of the Bodrum castle contain the nearly 250 coats of arms and armorial bearings of many of the knights that served there. Captured in 1522 by the Ottomans during the reign of Kanuni Sultan Suleyman, the church on the castle was converted into a mosque.
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Casa Romana - Roman Villa
The "Casa Romana", or the Roman Manor is one of the most interesting sites on the island of Kos. In 1933 the great earthquake nearly destroyed the whole island. The Italians, who at the time of the earthquake were occupying the island, perceived the destruction as an opportunity to reconstruct the city's building plan, conducting numerous excavations, with the knowledge that beneath the leveled structures ancient monuments lay.
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Hierapolis
Hierapolis was established by King Eumenes 2 and was given the name of "Hiera" in the honour of the wife of Telephos, the legendary establisher of the ancient Pergamum.
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Gyzi Castle
The Gyzi Castle of Mykonos Cyclades: The castle of Gyzi lies on a hill above the village of Ano Mera, in the center of Mykonos island. It dates from the 13th century and only some ruins of it remain today. It was built during the rule of the Gyzi family, a noble Venetian family that was ruling the Cyclades in the Medieval times, to protect the island from pirates and enemy attacks. This area also hosts the ruins of the ancient city of Mykonos and you will find remains of a prehistoric market, an ancient cemetery and some ruins of an even older wall fortification. Near Gizi Castle, you will find the church of the Holy Saviour, dating from the 18th century. This hill gives an awesome view to the northern side of the island.
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Municipal Library of Mykonos
The Municipal Library of Mykonos is housed in a magnificent old mansion that belonged to the Mavrogenis family. Dated to 1735, this beautiful building has seen its own share of history. Located in Agia Kyriaki Square, it houses nearly 6,000 volumes of literature, history and many more categories, though most of the books are in Greek. You can travel through the library looking at numerous photographs as well as Cycladic coins and old seals. The books were donated by a Mykonian historian, Ioannis Meletopoulos, from his own personal library. Other books were also donated by many more people from their own libraries, while some other donated other things as well, such as black and white sketches of landmarks on the island. As of now, with the advent of modernity, the municipal library is no longer operational. But they continue to be a symbol of Mykonos rich virile past. Being hundreds of years old, most of the municipal library has been thoroughly renovated and some have even been converted into museums, the most famous being the Bonis Windmill. Providing interesting insights into the life of Mykonos, all the works displayed in the library are unique and extremely interesting. A visit to this wonderful library is worth your time and effort.
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Windmills of Mykonos
Although the windmills do make for some beautiful photo opportunities, there was a time that they had a practical purpose. The windmills themselves have their origins in the 1500’s, but most of the ones that are still standing today were built much later. They were originally built by the Venetians, who occupied the island in the 16th Century A.D. Right now, there are a total of 16 windmills that are still standing today. Back then, the primary purpose for these windmills was to mill wheat that grew on the island. The wind power turned the mechanism that enabled them to work. Today, the windmills really aren’t in use, but they sure are pretty. While on Mykonos, you won’t want to miss the chance to visit with some of the windmills and to also snap a few memorable photographs of them.
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The Temple of Panagia Ekatontapiliani
According to legend, Agia Eleni encountered a storm off the coast of Paros on her pilgrimage to the Holy Land to find the Holy Cross. She disembarked on the island at a small church. There, she made a vow to Panagia to build a large church in her name if she remained unharmed though the act of God and found the Holy Cross.
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The Ancient Aizonai
The ancient city is situated southwest of Kütahya,in Çavdarhisar. The settlement dates back to 3000 BC.Aizanoi was settled on the two banks of River Rhyndakos that flowed through the region called ‘Phyrgia Epiktetus’(little Phyrgia)in ancient times. The name Aizanoi comes from the word eksouanous
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Dumlupinar Atatuerk House Museum
The site is the house that Head Commander Gazi Mustafa Kemal Atatürk stayed in during the War of Independence, and it was also used as the Dumlupınar HQ. The house has been fully restored to its original state and was opened to visitors on August 30, 2003.
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Archeological Museum
The Archeological Museum is located in a former girls’ school that was built in 1894. It was designed by the Swiss architect Herman Maier, who also designed banks in Sofia, Plovdiv, and Russe.
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Ancient Thera
Ancient Thera stands on Mesa Vouno, at an altitude of 396 m. It is an ancient city named after mythical ruler of the island. It was founded in the 9th century BC by Dorian settlers, led by Theras; habitation continued until the early Byzantine era. The position is naturally fortified because the steep slopes of the mountain made the city inaccessible from land or sea and also a great observatory to the SE Aegean Sea. Public and private buildings are built along the main axis of the city in direction from the NE to the SE corner of the rock. Smaller cobbled streets adapted to the terrain, intersected the main road. Building remnants belong to the Hellenistic era, which is the last period of the city's prosperity. The residential development is amphitheatrical due to the inclination of the terrain and to the building in such way so there was a view of the sea. Few private houses have been excavated organized in neighborhoods, mainly in the eastern part of town. The habitation sites were built around a closed courtyard and beneath it was a tank collecting rainwater. Homes had more or less spaces, or were developed vertically with a second floor depending on the social and financial status of the residents.
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Temple of Poseidon
Built in the same time as Parthenon, the Doric Temple of Poseidon is situated on the edge of the magnificent Cape Sounio, 70km south from Athens. 16 remaining slender columns of Doric order reveal that Greeks, indeed, knew where to "place" their temples. On the coast of Attica, Cape Sounio is a jewel overlooking the Aegean Sea. Once upon a time, the Temple of Poseidon used to serve as a sacrifice point, since the sailors tried to appease God of the Sea, Poseidon, before entering the Aegean Sea. The distinctive cape crowned with the imposing Temple of Poseidon offers impressive views of the Saronic Gulf and the Aegean Sea with the Greek islands.
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Zappeion National Garden
National Garden is a marvelous park, open to the public from sunrise to sunset, located in the heart of Athens, just behind the Greek Parliament. What were once, the Old Palace and the Royal Garden, the getaway of Queen Amalia and King Otto, is now a delightful, shady refuge for Athenians and visitors during the hot summer months.
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Syntagma Square
Syntagma Square is the most famous in Athens if not all of Greece. No matter where you have to go in Athens, if you can find Syntagma Square you can find your way there. Syntagma Square is back and better than ever. Well maybe not better than ever. It was probably at it's best in the early 1900's when there were not cars and buses whizzing around it and it was shaded by large trees. But with the re-routing of the traffic, the opening of the new metro and the removal of the wooden billboard covered walls that for at least an entire year, hid the construction site that was once Athens most popular platia, Syntagma looks better than it has in many years. At the top of the square are two stairways and an elevator leading to the Syntagma Metro Station, one of the most beautiful metro stations in the world, with its own museum of artifacts found at the construction site.
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Temple of Olympian Zeus
In the heart of modern Athens, its streets pulsating with traffic, stands an enormous open space bordered by trees and shrubs – the Olympieion – a tranquil archaeological park where earth and sky seem to meet, linked by massive marble columns stretching upward, marking the temple of Olympian Zeus. Once inside the entrance of this age-old sanctuary, visitors are treated to a taste of nature, an extraordinary ancient ruin on a super-human scale and one of the area’s most inspiring views of the temple-topped Acropolis. Like the Acropolis, the temple of Olympian Zeus has been a distinctive Athenian landmark since time immemorial. Begun about 520 BC by the tyrant Peisistratus and his sons, it was left unfinished at the end of their rule until the 2nd century BC, when further construction was briefly undertaken (174 – 164 BC) by one of Athens’ Hellenistic benefactors, the Seleucid king Antiochus IV Epiphanes. Abandoned once again following Antiochus’ death, it was ultimately finished by the Roman emperor Hadrian and dedicated in AD 132. Hadrian, an ardent Hellenophile much respected by the people of the Greek East, gave Athens not only the completed Olympieion, but also other temples in the area; a new public forum on the north side of the Acropolis that contained a library and lecture halls; and an urban water system fed by an aqueduct from Mount Penteli that continued to supply the city until the 1930s.
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Milos Mining Museum
The Milos Mining Museum (MMM) is located in Adamas, the island’s main port. The Museum’s aim is to promote the rich geological and mining history of Milos and to pay homage to all those who have worked hard in order to develop the island’s mineral wealth that contributed greatly to its financial and cultural affluence during its long and uninterrupted history. With an aim to inform and to educate the public, the MMM organizes periodic exhibitions, scientific conferences, as well as special guided visits to industrial facilities, mines and areas with geological interest, while it also publishes books on subjects related to mineral resources and mining.
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Sacred Rock of the Acropolis
The Sacred Rock of the Acropolis "the province of the Gods", unoccupied by humans, is a perfect 5th century BC collection of public monuments which stands as a unique Greek testimony.
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Odeon of Herodes Atticus
One of the legendary sites that sits beneath the slopes of the Acropolis on the southwest side, is the stunning open-air theatre, Odeon of Herodes Atticus. In ancient times, Odeons were built for musical contests and this ancient stone theatre has gone on to host some of the world’s best musical performances during the last 60 years since its modern day re-opening, including Nana Mouskouri, Luciano Pavarotti and Frank Sinatra to name a few. Widely known by locals as simply “Herodeon”, it was built between 160AD – 174AD by the wealthy benefactor of Athens, Herodes Atticus as an ode to his late wife Rigilla. It was the third Odeon to be built in Athens and was distinctively Roman in contrast to the nearby Theatre of Dionysos. With its Roman arches and three story stage building, it was originally partly covered with a wood and tiled roof. The circular orchestra has now become a semi-circle, paved with black and white marble. With 35 rows, the marble auditorium extends slightly beyond a semi-circle with a diameter of 80 metres and today seats 4680 people.
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The Catacombs of Milos
The Catacombs of Milos, in Milos Island, dating from the 1st - 5th century, are among the three most important of the 74 discovered worldwide, together with the catacombs of Rome and the Holy Land. It is possible that the Catacombs of Milos are older than the ones of Rome. Perhaps only a small part of a sizable necropolis at the foothills of the village of Trypiti, the Catacombs of Milos were used by the early christians first as a burial site and later also as a place of worship and a refuge after persecution by the Romans became widespread. The Catacombs of Milos are considered to be the most important early Christian monument of worship in all of Greece. Still visible to the visitors of the Catacombs of Milos are inscriptions on the walls including the Monogram of Christ and the ecumenical Christian symbol "ΙΧΘΥΣ", hollows used for lamps and votive gifts to the departed, and a couple of graves of infants.
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Milos Klima
Klima is one of the striking fishing villages on the Greek island of Milos, with its little white houses built along the water. In the middle of the 19th century, these houses were owned by fishermen who used them as second homes and as boathouses. The fishermen usually lived in Plaka and left their boats here along the water. On the lower floor was storage for the boat, while on the top floor was living space and a place for the fisherman to sleep. During the 20th century, however, the function of the fishermen's cottages changed and became the second homes for the families of the fishermen. Today, these houses are rented to vacationers. Klima is accessible through Plaka and Trypiti. Unfortunately, parking can be difficult to find. You may have to park your car along the road, a hundred meters from the village, and walk by foot to the village. There are no beach bars or taverns. The only public place is the Hotel Panorama, which is slightly higher and a small distance away.
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Sagalassos Ancient City (Burdur)
The ancient city of Sagalassos is located in the region known as Pisidia in antiquity. Situated at the edge of a mountainous area, the first settlement traces date back to 12,000 years ago. The ancient city of Sagalassos is extremely well preserved with its monumental structures where almost all of the original building stones can be found.
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Isparta mosque
Isparta historical State han mosque is well known tourist attraction.
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Istanbul Archaeological Museum
The Istanbul Archaeological Museums is among the most impressive historical venues for your outdoor events and made up of three main units: the Istanbul Archaeological Museum, the Ancient Orient Museum and Tiled Kiosk Museum. The collection of the Archaeology Museum Turkey’s first museum houses over one million artefacts belonging to various cultures collected from the imperial territories. The Archaeological Museum was founded on June 13, 1891, under the name of Müze-i Hümayun (the Imperial Museum). Commissioned by archaeologist, painter and curator.
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Blue Mosque
The Blue Mosque (Called Sultanahmet Camii in Turkish) is an historical mosque in Istanbul. The mosque is known as the Blue Mosque because of blue tiles surrounding the walls of interior design.Mosque was built between 1609 and 1616 years, during the rule of Ahmed I. just like many other mosques, it also comprises a tomb of the founder, a madrasa and a hospice.Besides still used as a mosque, the Sultan Ahmed Mosque has also become a popular tourist attraction in Istanbul. Besides being tourist attraction, it's also a active mosque, so it's closed to non worshippers for a half hour or so during the five daily prayers. Best way to see great architecture of the Blue Mosque is to approach it from the Hippodrome. (West side of the mosque) As if you are non-Muslim visitor, you also have to use same direction to enter the Mosque.
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Basilica Cistern
One of the magnificent ancient buildings of İstanbul is the Basilica Cistern located in the southwest of Hagia Sofia. Constructed for Justinianus I, the Byzantium Emperor (527-565), this big underground water reservoir is called as “Yerebatan Cistern” among the public because of the underground marble columns. As there used to be a basilica in the place of the cistern, it is also called Basilica Cistern. The cistern is a giant structure covering a rectangular area of ​​140 meters in length and 70 meters in width. Covering a total area of ​​9,800 m2, this cistern has a storage capacity of approximately 100,000 tons of water. There are 336 columns, each 9 meters high, inside this cistern, which is descended by a 52-step stone staircase. These columns, erected at intervals of 4.80 meters, form 12 rows of 28 columns each. Most of the columns, which are understood to have been collected from older structures, were carved from various types of marble and consisted of one piece and two pieces. The walls of the cistern, 4.80 meters thick, made of bricks and the brick-paved floor, were plastered with a thick layer of Horasan mortar and made water impermeable.
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Suleymaniye Mosque
Süleymaniye Mosque built on top of the third hill of historical Istanbul is one of the biggest mosques of the city. The truly staggering size of the Süleymaniye Camii (Suleymaniye Mosque) is one of its most distinctive features – built by the legendary architect, Mimar Sinan, it is known as one of his masterpieces, and his largest design. It is not just the awe-inspiring size that is impressive (the central dome stands 47m high), but also the elegantly decorated interior. The sense of space and light is emphasized the supporting semi-domes to the northwest and southeast and the monumental arched spaces to the southwest and northeast.
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Istanbul Archaeology Museum
The Istanbul Archaeological Museums is among the most impressive historical venues for your outdoor events and made up of three main units: the Istanbul Archaeological Musuems, the Ancient Orient Museum and Tiled Kiosk Museum. The collection of the Archaeology Museum Turkey’s first museum houses over one million artifacts belonging various cultures collected from the imperial territories.
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Topkapi Palace Museum
It is located on the promontory of the historical peninsula in İstanbul which overlooks both the Marmara Sea and the İstanbul strait. The walls enclosing the palace grounds, the main gate on the land side and the first buildings were constructed during the time of Fatih Sultan Mehmet (the Conqueror) (1451 - 81). The palace has taken its present layout with the addition of new structures in the later centuries. Topkapı Palace was the official residence of the Ottoman Sultans, starting with Fatih Sultan Mehmet until 1856, when Abdülmecid moved to the Dolmabahçe Palace, functioned as the administrative centre of the state. The Enderun section also gained importance as a school. Topkapı Palace was converted to a museum in 1924. Parts of the Palace such as the Harem, Baghdad Pavilion, Revan Pavilion, Sofa Pavilion, and the Audience Chamber distinguish themselves with their architectural assets, while in other sections artefacts are displayed which reflect the palace life. The museum also has collections from various donations and a library.
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The Maiden Tower
Kizkulesi is located off the coast of Salacak neighbourhood in Üsküdar district, at the southern entrance of the Bosphorus. It literally means "Maiden's Tower" in Turkish. The name comes from a legend: the Byzantine emperor heard a prophecy telling him that his beloved daughter would die at the age of 18 by a snake. So he decided to put her in this tower built on a rock on the Bosphorus isolated from the land thus no snake could kill her. But she couldn't escape from her destiny, after all, a snake hidden in a fruit basket brought from the city bit the princess and killed her. Kizkulesi is dating back to the 5th century BC when it was built by the Athenian general Alcibiades on a rock at the entrance of the Bosphorus for the surveillance of the waterway. A chain was pulled from the land to the tower to make it a checkpoint and customs area for the ships going through. Today, Kizkulesi is a very popular and classy restaurant and cafeteria-bar. It offers 360-degree views of the Bosphorus and the old city, especially at night. There are several shuttle boats going to the tower at certain times from Kabatas neighbourhood on the European side of Istanbul and from Salacak neighbourhood on the Asian side.
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Panagia Eikonistria
Panagia Eikonistria is the most holy site of the island since the miraculous icon of Virgin Mary (Panagia) was found here around 1650. An important intellectual figure of the island and of the Church, Dionysios the Old, was a monk in this monastery.