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Architecture, Cluj-napoca

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Ethnographic Park Romulus Vuia
The National Ethnographic Vuia, established in 1929, bears the name of its founder and first museum manager, Professor Romulus Vuia. The exhibited pieces are in fact old traditional buildings, grouped according to their regional establishments, folk architecture monuments, folk installations, craftsman workshops, wells, gateways, big wooden crosses and indoor textiles. Interesting facts: •The Ethnographic Museum is the oldest from Romania; •The oldest exhibit pieces date back from 1678; •The church from Cizer-Salaj, at the construction of which contributed Nicola Ursu (Horea), just before the 1784 uprising, is one of the most beautiful wooden churches in Transylvania; weddings are still being officiated in this architectural monument; •It hosts annual fairs and traditional cultural manifestations. http://www.visitclujnapoca.ro/en/atractii-turistice/muzee/the-romulus-vuia-national-ethnographic-park.html
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Art Museum of Cluj-Napoca
The Art Museum of Cluj-Napoca is a public institution of a culture whose mission is to preserve, research and put forward the real and virtual patrimony of Romanian and universal art. With a collection of over 12,000 paintings, sculptures, graphic arts and decorative pieces, it is considered one of the most important museums in Romania. Founded as an institution in 1951, the museum has been operating since 1956 in the Banffy Palace – a baroque building which was built based on the plans of the architect J.E. Blaumann during the years 1774-1785, its destination being that of residence for the governor of Transylvania. It is the most important baroque edifice in Cluj-Napoca and one of reference for the 18th-century Romanian architecture. A series of sculptures with remarkable artistic value made by Anton Schuchbauer were added to the building in order to complete its stone architectural decorations. http://www.visitclujnapoca.ro/en/atractii-turistice/muzee/the-art-museum-of-clujnapoca.html
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Cluj Napoca City Hall
The building was constructed at the end of 19th century, according to the plans of the architect Alpár Ignác, having a baroque facade of Viennese style and a corner tower with a clock that impresses by strength and sobriety. On the tower was applied the Prefecture's coat of arms (Cluj County) because the initial destination of the building was that of a County headquarter. The building was included in the systematization plan of the city in 1798 which stated that any new construction had to have the city council’s approval. The initial destination of the building as the headquarter of the County was multiple – political, administrative, fiscal headquarter etc., where the County officials were deciding the wellbeing of the area; in the big chambers, besides the usual meetings, exhibitions of famous and of young artists as well as the city balls from the beginning of the 20th century took place. Nowadays it is the headquarter of the Cluj-Napoca City Hall, an institution that follows the principles of local administrative and financial autonomy, decentralization of public services, lawfulness and eligibility of the local public administration authorities, the consultation of the citizens on community issues. http://www.visitclujnapoca.ro/en/atractii-turistice/monumente-si-complexe-arhitectonice/clujnapoca-city-hall.html
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Cluj Tailors' Tower
The Tailors' Tower (Baba Novac Street / Stefan cel Mare Square) is part of the second fortified precinct of the walls system and of the fortifications of the city, built in the first half of 15th century and continued until the 17th century. It was built on the South-Eastern corner of the city defence wall, after 1405, following the privileges keyed by King Sigismund of Luxemburg. The first confirmed documents date 1457, from the time of King Matia Corvin. The administration of the Tower was entrusted to the most powerful guilds of the town – the tailors' guild. Over time, the Tower was devastated several times (1551-1553, 1601, 1627, and 1707). The actual shape is given by the last big reconstruction from 1709-1711, made by the Austrians, out of over 150 stone wagons. The Tower has renewed again in 1956-1957 when they attempted the opening of a history museum of the city of Cluj, a project forbidden by the communist authorities in 1959. http://www.visitclujnapoca.ro/en/atractii-turistice/monumente-si-complexe-arhitectonice/page/4/the-tailors-tower.html
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Ethnographic Museum of Transylvania
Founded in 1922 by professor Romulus Voia, the Ethnographic Museum of Transylvania entered the elite of the Romanian ethnographic museums, due to the exceptional quality of its patrimony. It is currently composed of over 41.000 traditional peasant objects from 17th-20th centuries and a documentary fund of over 80.000 items. The museum has two sections: the Pavilion Section and „Romulus Vuia” ethnographic Park (the open-air section). The Pavilion Section functions in „Reduta” Palace – a historical monument that dates since the 16th century. The current pavilion exhibition, vernished on 16th of December and called „Traditional folk culture from Transylvania in the 18th-20th centuries”, rebuilds, with talent, the way in which the Transylvanian peasantry lived two centuries ago. As testimonies remained simple tools or ingenious equipment used in domestic activities, culminating with rich folk suits, which showed not only the stage of the life but also the social position of the one who wore them. There are also presented traditional costumes of the life cycle, the calendar ones and the peasant costumes, with an essential role in highlighting the regional and ethnic identity. Curiosities: With a history of more than 80 years, the museum is the greatest of this kind in Romania and among the most prestigious in Europe (the sixth). The museum functions in „Reduta” building, which housed during 1848-1865 the Transylvanian Diet. The famous trial of the authors of the Transylvanian Memorandum took place in this building in 1894-1895. It has 50.000 photos, 5.000 diapositives, 12.000 specialised magazines. http://www.visitclujnapoca.ro/en/atractii-turistice/best-of-cluj-napoca/the-ethnographic-museum-of-transylvania.html
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Matthias Corvinus House
The Matthias Corvinus House (or Mehffy House) is a stylish building in gothic style from the 15th century (today, Art and Design University of Cluj Napoca). In this house, which was the city’s inn in past, was born on 23rd of February 1443 Matia Corvin, the son of the vaivode of Transylvania, John Hunyadi (Ioan de Hunedoara). Matia Corvin was the greatest king of Hungary (1458-1490), he was learned, patron of arts, wise and just, being mentioned in songs and legends even today. In 1467, he acquited the owners of the house in which he was born from paying taxes and fees to the city. This privilege was enforced by the next kings and princes. The house served as different institutions. It was a college but was also home for the ethnographic collections of the Transylvanian Carpathian Society. Over time, the building has suffered various changes, adapted to the new architectural styles. The basement and some platband of windows and doors that have lintels in the oblique section are characteristic of the gothic style. During the first half of the 16th century appeared the first elements of the Renaissance: some platbands from Renaissance on the facade, with denticles, together with gothic elements, as well as the portal in a broken arch. The original arches were chiefly replaced. During the 18th century, the building was made a hospital and the yard had suffered a few baroque changes. At the end of the 19th century, the building was in an advanced state of degradation and it was restored. Many elements of Art Nouveau, Secession were introduced, being in fashion at that time. In the ’50s of the last century, the modifications of Art Nouveau were removed, being incompatible with the architecture of the building, which gained the present appearance. http://www.visitclujnapoca.ro/en/atractii-turistice/best-of-cluj-napoca/the-matthias-corvinus-house.html
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National Theater Lucian Blaga
The two cultural institutions were founded in 18th September 1919, as an expression of spiritual rebirth after the Great Union in 1918. The building which houses the „Lucian Blaga” National Theatre and the Romanian Opera was built between 1904 and 1906, as a seat for the Hungarian National Theatre, by the famous Viennese firm „ Fellner und Helmer”, combining stylistic elements of new-baroque and Secession. The hall has 928 setas and it is built in New-Baroque style. For decorating the lobby were used stylistic modulations inspired by Secession. The National Theatre and the Romanian Opera have been functioning there since 1919. The opening show of the National Theatre of Cluj took place on 1st and 2nd December 1919, with the plays „Se face ziua” by Zaharia Barsan and „Ovidiu” by Vasile Alecsandri. The „Eupharion” Studio of the National Theatre is specially designed for the young artists and their creative experiments. The Romanian National Opera from Cluj Napoca is the first lyrical dramatic state institution from Romania. The inaugural show took place on 25 May 1820, with the play “Aida” by G.Verdi. More than 200 titles of operas, operettas and ballets from the world repertoire have been put on scene at the Romanian Opera so far. http://www.visitclujnapoca.ro/en/atractii-turistice/best-of-cluj-napoca/the-lucian-blaga-national-theatre-and-romanian-opera.html
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Orthodox Metropolitan Cathedral
The Orthodox Metropolitan Cathedral (Avram Iancu Square) – Romanian Orthodox Mitropoly of Cluj, Alba, Crisana, Maramures. Archiepiscopate of Vad, Feleac and Cluj (18 Avram Iancu Square). It was built between 1923-1933, according to the plans of the architects Constantin Pompoiu and George Cristinel, representing the Romanian stylistic current. It is one of the most important religious buildings from Cluj Napoca municipality. The church is dedicated to the Assumption – the date in which the Romanian Army entered Transylvania (15th of August 1916). In 1973, when the Diocesan See of Cluj was made Archiepiscopate, the church became an archepiscopal cathedral. Since 1996, the cathedral had been in a great process of outside restoration, a process which came to an end in 1999. Inside, a new Byzantine painting was made, in the famous mosaic of Murano. Since 2006, the building has served as the cathedral of the Archiepiscopate of Vad, Feleac and Cluj, which is also metropolitan of Cluj, Alba, Crisana and Maramures. http://www.visitclujnapoca.ro/en/atractii-turistice/best-of-cluj-napoca/the-orthodox-metropolitan-cathedral.html
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Romano-Catholic Church Saint Michael
The Roman Catholic "Saint Michael" Church (Unirii Square), a great historical and religious architecture monument are one of the most imposing gothic edifices from our country. It was built approximately between 1350 and 1480, being the first hall church from Transylvania. The main portal, carved in 1444 in gothic style, ends with a high accolade, showing in the central part the carved image of archangel Michael. The tower from the north facade was built between 1834 and 1863 in neo-gothic style and it is 80 meter high, including the cross. The inside and outside decorations and the baroque carved pulpit are also remarkable. An extraordinary execution is the portal of the sacristy, from the Renaissance (1528) with Italian motifs and a strong south-German influence. The body of the pulpit, in baroque style, was carved by Johannes Nachtigall and Anton Schuhbauer. The mural picture, fragmentary kept, shows stylistic influences from northern Italy and reveals the first signs of the Renaissance in the painting from Cluj-Napoca. http://www.visitclujnapoca.ro/en/atractii-turistice/best-of-cluj-napoca/page/2/the-roman-catholic-saint-michael-church.html
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Avram Iancu Square
On the western part of the old city walls, guarded by three bastions and gates, this square was initially a marketplace, which was going to be moved to the central square. Eventually, the marketplace was moved closer to the railroad, in the current location of Mihai Viteazul square. Thus, at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century the walls and gates of the city were demolished, and a small park was arranged in this square. Later, new buildings were erected here, such as the National Theater, the Orthodox Cathedral, the building of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry, in the Art Nouveau style (today, the office of the Cluj Prefecture); the building of the old “Unió” Masonic Lodge (no. 7 Avram Iancu Sq.); the building of the old military garrison (today, the building of the County School Inspectorate, also known in the oral tradition of the city as the “red building”, a name earned by the red brick walls of the building); the Palace of Justice, where the Court of Appeal and the Tribunal are housed; the EMKE Palace (Hungarian Cultural Association of Transylvania), later purchased by MÁV (Magyar Államvasútak, Hungarian State Railroads), currently the headquarters of the CFR Regional Office; the building of the Archbishopric of Vad, Feleac and Cluj, which houses the Faculty of Orthodox Theology and the building of the Protestant Theology, on the old site of the Reformed Church’s Prayer House. http://www.visitclujnapoca.ro/en/atractii-turistice/monumente-si-complexe-arhitectonice/avram-iancu-square.html