Its construction date is not known exactly. It is believed to have been built by the Hittites, who had a military garrison in the city. But this idea has not been confirmed based on archaeological data. The Ankara Castle, which has been in the same place since the Hittites, was repaired many times during the Romans, Byzantines and Seljuk periods, consists of the inner castle that covers the high part of the hill and the outer castle that surrounds its surroundings (the outer castle has about 20 towers). The outer fortress turns the old city of Ankara.
The castle has experienced various periods in history. BC 2nd century After the Romans invaded Galatya (Ankara region) at the beginning, the city grew and fell out of the castle. Roman Emperor Caracaila İ.S. In 217 he repaired the walls of the castle. Between 222 and 260, Emperor Severus Alexander and Velerianus were defeated by the Persians and the castle was partially destroyed. After the second half of the 7th century, the Romans began to repair the castle. Emperor Constantine made an outsider in 688. IV. While Leon repaired the castle walls in 740, the walls of the inner castle also increased. Emperor Nikephoros and Emperor Basileios also repaired the fort in the 9th century.
Before building of Anitkabir, Anittepe’s (Monument Hill ) name was Rasattepe (Observation Hill) because there was an observatory on this hill.
There were also tumultuous (graves) belonging to Phrygian civilization of 3rd Century BC on this hill. Archaeological excavations took place to remove these tombs after the decision was given to build Anitkabir on Rasattepe. Remains found on these excavations are on display in the museum of Anatolian Civilizations.
The first stage to start the construction was the expropriation of the land after deciding on the Anitkabir project. Actual construction of Anitkabir commenced on 9 October 1944 with a splendid ceremony by laying the first stone of the foundation. Construction of Anitkabir took nine years in four stages. Second stage construction, comprising the mausoleum and the auxiliary buildings surrounding the ceremonial ground, started on 29 September 1945 and completed on 8 August 1950.
The third stage was comprising the construction of the roads leading to the mausoleum, Lions’ alley, ceremonial ground, the mausoleum’s upper-level stone pavement, grand stairs, putting the big tomb stone in its place and installation of electricity, plumbing and heating systems.
Ethnography Museum of Ankara is the first museum of Turkish Rebuplic which was planned and built by the directive of Atatürk, the great leader. Arif Hikmet Koyunoğlu, the architect of the building, is one of the most valuable architects of the Republican period. The architecture of the Ethnography Museum of Ankara reflects the characteristics of each period of Anatolia from the early ages to the Republic. The Museum which was opened to the public on 18th July 1930 and remained open until the date on November 1938 where the inner courtyard of the museum served as the temporary grave for Atatürk. The Ethnographic Museum of Ankara reopened its doors to the public, owing to the International Museums week, in 6th-14th October 1956.
Ethnography Museum of Ankara contains a rich collection of works which reflect ethnographic aspects of all people lived in Anatolia At the museum, it is possible to see folk costumes, ornaments, Turkish-specific technical materials compiled from various regions of Anatolia as well as the finest examples of Ottoman calligraphic art, Turkish tile and glass art, metalworking art and wooden artefacts. Also exhibited at the Ethnography Museum is a collection of carpets and kilims from the famous carpet weaving centres of Uşak, Bergama, Kula, Milas, Ladik, Karaman, Niğde, and Kırşehir. The museum also has a specialized library on Anatolian ethnography and folklore, containing artefacts available related to the history of art.
The temple of Augustus and Roma in Ankara was erected after the conquest of Central Anatolia by the Roman emperor Octavian Augustus in 25 BCE. The city, then known as Ancyra, became the capital of the newly formed Province of Galatia. After the death of Augustus in 14 CE, a copy of his autobiography entitled "Deeds of the Divine Augustus" was placed on the walls of the temple both in Latin and in Greek translation. There were many such copies the Roman Empire, but nowadays the inscription from Ankara, known as the Monumentum Ancyranum, is an almost completely preserved version of the text. This fact makes it a unique source of knowledge for researchers of this period of history.
In the first half of the 3rd century BCE, the Celtic people from northern Europe reached the Anatolian highlands. Their route went through Macedonia and Greece, and the Greeks began to call them the Galatians. They came to Asia Minor not as invaders, but as mercenaries on the invitation from the king Bithynia, Nikomedes I. He needed their assistance in the fight against his brother, Zipoetes II.
Ziraat Bank Museum is located in the Honor Hall of the Ziraat Bank Head Office Building, which was built by the Italian architect Giulio Mongeri between 1926-1929 and is one of the structures of the First National Architecture Period. It was opened on November 20, 1981, when the 118th anniversary of the bank was celebrated, by the Advisory Council President Şadi Irmak.
It is the first bank museum in our country. Since its start, Turkey commercial banking system, economic, political, cultural, artistic and showing growth reached up to the present with educational exchange Ziraat Bank Museum, many antique objects used in hosting and banking systems of these properties are exhibited in a historical atmosphere.
Sultan Han Caravanserai is located in the Sultan Hani District of Bünyan District, located on the 46th km of Kayseri-Sivas road. The neighbourhood got its name from this work. It was built between 1232-1236 during the reign of Seljuk Sultan Alaeddin Keykubat I. It is one of the best examples of the Seljuk architect style. Very smooth cut stone was used on the body walls. The joints are very uniform and show a structure called "not to flow". The arch built with the alternating use of beige and brownstone attracts attention at the crown gate of the courtyard. Depending on the stone material, decorations with relief and carving techniques can be seen in the crown doors, two corner towers and Köşk Mescit.
The archaeological excavations carried out by Turkish Historical Society in 1941 showed that the first settlement on the hill goes back to 3000 BC, Early Bronze Age.  Later on, the hill had also been used as a settlement area during Phrygian, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, Seljuk and Ottoman eras.
Mevlevi Derhgahı (Dervish Lodge) and the mausoleum started to function as a museum in 1926 under the name of Konya Museum of Historical Works. In 1954 the display pattern of the museum was once more taken up and it was renamed as the Mevlevi Museum.
Clock tower II. It was built in 1906 by Tavlusunlu Salih Usta with the order of Abdülhamit and the support of Kayseri Governor Haydar Bey. The rectangular space next to it was built as a clock room. The 15-meter high tower can be reached by spiral stairs. During the National Struggle period, Anadolu and Rumeli Müdafaa-i Hukuk Cemlığı were used as Kayseri Branch. There is a rectangular opening in the pointed pyramidal cone section covering the tower and a clock bell inside it.
Constructed of cut stone, the structure is divided into three sections with transversely arranged mouldings. There are circular openings arranged for the clock on each side of the upper section.
It is known that Zeynel Abidin, one of the prominent of the Rufai Sect, built a lodge, mosque and fountain in the environment where the tomb is today. Known as Imam Sultan in Kayseri, Zeynel Abidin died in Kayseri in 1414 and a modest mausoleum was built on the grave at the present place. II. In the time of Abdulhamit, in 1886, the existing tomb was built in the place where Zeynel Abidin's grave was located. The tomb is a square planned structure and is covered with a dome. There are two lines of couplets on all the windows of the building with three windows on each side. There is a sarcophagus of Zeynel Abidin in the middle of the tomb. In the building inscription on the entrance door of the building, it is engraved on an oval medallion.
The site is the house that Head Commander Gazi Mustafa Kemal Atatürk stayed in during the War of Independence, and it was also used as the Dumlupınar HQ. The house has been fully restored to its original state and was opened to visitors on August 30, 2003.
The ancient city is situated southwest of Kütahya,in Çavdarhisar. The settlement dates back to 3000 BC.Aizanoi was settled on the two banks of River Rhyndakos that flowed through the region called ‘Phyrgia Epiktetus’(little Phyrgia)in ancient times. The name Aizanoi comes from the word eksouanous
The ancient city of Sagalassos is located in the region known as Pisidia in antiquity. Situated at the edge of a mountainous area, the first settlement traces date back to 12,000 years ago. The ancient city of Sagalassos is extremely well preserved with its monumental structures where almost all of the original building stones can be found.
Kizkulesi is located off the coast of Salacak neighbourhood in Üsküdar district, at the southern entrance of the Bosphorus. It literally means "Maiden's Tower" in Turkish. The name comes from a legend: the Byzantine emperor heard a prophecy telling him that his beloved daughter would die at the age of 18 by a snake. So he decided to put her in this tower built on a rock on the Bosphorus isolated from the land thus no snake could kill her. But she couldn't escape from her destiny, after all, a snake hidden in a fruit basket brought from the city bit the princess and killed her.
Kizkulesi is dating back to the 5th century BC when it was built by the Athenian general Alcibiades on a rock at the entrance of the Bosphorus for the surveillance of the waterway. A chain was pulled from the land to the tower to make it a checkpoint and customs area for the ships going through.
Today, Kizkulesi is a very popular and classy restaurant and cafeteria-bar. It offers 360-degree views of the Bosphorus and the old city, especially at night. There are several shuttle boats going to the tower at certain times from Kabatas neighbourhood on the European side of Istanbul and from Salacak neighbourhood on the Asian side.
Dolmabahce Palace built in 19 th century is one of the most glamorous palaces in the world. It was the administrative centre of the late Ottoman Empire with the last of Ottoman Sultans was residing there. After the foundation of the Turkish Republic in Ankara, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk transferred all government functions to the youthful capital but on his visits to Istanbul Ataturk occupied only a small room at Dolmabahce Palace as his own. He stayed, welcomed his foreign guests and made a practical centre for national, historical and language congress and for international conferences.
It is located on the promontory of the historical peninsula in İstanbul which overlooks both the Marmara Sea and the İstanbul strait. The walls enclosing the palace grounds, the main gate on the land side and the first buildings were constructed during the time of Fatih Sultan Mehmet (the Conqueror) (1451 - 81). The palace has taken its present layout with the addition of new structures in the later centuries. Topkapı Palace was the official residence of the Ottoman Sultans, starting with Fatih Sultan Mehmet until 1856, when Abdülmecid moved to the Dolmabahçe Palace, functioned as the administrative centre of the state. The Enderun section also gained importance as a school.
Topkapı Palace was converted to a museum in 1924. Parts of the Palace such as the Harem, Baghdad Pavilion, Revan Pavilion, Sofa Pavilion, and the Audience Chamber distinguish themselves with their architectural assets, while in other sections artefacts are displayed which reflect the palace life. The museum also has collections from various donations and a library.
The Istanbul Archaeological Museums is among the most impressive historical venues for your outdoor events and made up of three main units: the Istanbul Archaeological Musuems, the Ancient Orient Museum and Tiled Kiosk Museum. The collection of the Archaeology Museum Turkey’s first museum houses over one million artifacts belonging various cultures collected from the imperial territories.
The Blue Mosque (Called Sultanahmet Camii in Turkish) is an historical mosque in Istanbul. The mosque is known as the Blue Mosque because of blue tiles surrounding the walls of interior design.Mosque was built between 1609 and 1616 years, during the rule of Ahmed I. just like many other mosques, it also comprises a tomb of the founder, a madrasa and a hospice.Besides still used as a mosque, the Sultan Ahmed Mosque has also become a popular tourist attraction in Istanbul.
Besides being tourist attraction, it's also a active mosque, so it's closed to non worshippers for a half hour or so during the five daily prayers.
Best way to see great architecture of the Blue Mosque is to approach it from the Hippodrome. (West side of the mosque) As if you are non-Muslim visitor, you also have to use same direction to enter the Mosque.
One of the magnificent ancient buildings of İstanbul is the Basilica Cistern located in the southwest of Hagia Sofia. Constructed for Justinianus I, the Byzantium Emperor (527-565), this big underground water reservoir is called as “Yerebatan Cistern” among the public because of the underground marble columns. As there used to be a basilica in the place of the cistern, it is also called Basilica Cistern.
The cistern is a giant structure covering a rectangular area of 140 meters in length and 70 meters in width. Covering a total area of 9,800 m2, this cistern has a storage capacity of approximately 100,000 tons of water. There are 336 columns, each 9 meters high, inside this cistern, which is descended by a 52-step stone staircase. These columns, erected at intervals of 4.80 meters, form 12 rows of 28 columns each. Most of the columns, which are understood to have been collected from older structures, were carved from various types of marble and consisted of one piece and two pieces. The walls of the cistern, 4.80 meters thick, made of bricks and the brick-paved floor, were plastered with a thick layer of Horasan mortar and made water impermeable.
Süleymaniye Mosque built on top of the third hill of historical Istanbul is one of the biggest mosques of the city.
The truly staggering size of the Süleymaniye Camii (Suleymaniye Mosque) is one of its most distinctive features – built by the legendary architect, Mimar Sinan, it is known as one of his masterpieces, and his largest design. It is not just the awe-inspiring size that is impressive (the central dome stands 47m high), but also the elegantly decorated interior. The sense of space and light is emphasized the supporting semi-domes to the northwest and southeast and the monumental arched spaces to the southwest and northeast.
The Istanbul Archaeological Museums is among the most impressive historical venues for your outdoor events and made up of three main units: the Istanbul Archaeological Museum, the Ancient Orient Museum and Tiled Kiosk Museum. The collection of the Archaeology Museum Turkey’s first museum houses over one million artefacts belonging to various cultures collected from the imperial territories. The Archaeological Museum was founded on June 13, 1891, under the name of Müze-i Hümayun (the Imperial Museum). Commissioned by archaeologist, painter and curator.
One of the symbols of Alanya – the Alanya castle over the rocky peninsula in the middle of the city. The fortress that you can see today is a remain of 13th century Seljuk fortress built after the conquest of Alanya in 1220 by Alaeddin Keykubat I.
However, the very first fortifications have most probably been built by pirates occupying the peninsula in 3rd century BC and later replaced and improved into Byzantine and Roman fortifications over the centuries. The latest Seljuk Alanya castle is app. 250m over the sea level and its walls have great 6,5km in length. There used to be 140 towers along the walls and around 400 cisterns in the castle.
The fortifications formed three separated divisions – one for the sultan and his family, one for the army and one for the ordinary people. During the Ottoman era, the Alanya castle was used only for defensive purposes and there were many private villas built within the fortress in the 19th century.
The museum at first operated in the Alâeddin Mosque in 1922, then in Yivli Mosque beginning from 1937, and then moved to its present building in 1972. It was closed to visitors for a wide range of modifications and restorations in 1982.
It is the oldest mosque of Gaziantep, and constructed by Boyacı Yusuf and Kadı kemalettin in 1357. Mosque, which belongs to Turkish Memluks, is very rich in connection with marble and tile adornments. Wooden balcony, which is the oldest sample of wooden craft of Gaziantep, has twelve branched stars, which are adorned with pelmet, rosette and geometric motifs.
Conservation works to the Archangelos Michael Church in Turkish occupied Lefkoniko have been completed. On the October 12, a project completion ceremony of consolidation and conservation works will take place, the Technical Committee on Cultural Heritage, the European Commission and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) have announced.
Archangelos Michael Church was included as a conservation project among the very first priorities of the Technical Committee on Cultural Heritage in 2009 together with Arnavut Mosque in Limassol in recognition of the importance of both monuments.
Kyrenia Castle is located near the harbour, which is horse shoe shaped. It was originally built by the Romans in the Third century to defend the city, which was located up on the hillside. In the Tenth century, the Byzantines then further enhanced the shape of the castle in order to protect the people of the city from Arab pirates.
From the first glance, the Castle is made in the style of the classic Western European castles combining various styles from the Renaissance and Romantic periods – but this comes not to be true! The style of the Castle is one and only – the unique Fairy style. This is the secret of its magic impact – the dream that came true to make a castle existing only in fairy-tales.
Bellapais Abbey is located in the hillside, 6 miles South East of Kyrenia. The Abbey is the best example of Gothic architecture in Cyprus, as well as being ones of the finest in the Middle East. Built by the Lusignans, the first settlers in Bellapais Abbey were the Agustinas Monks, who escaped from Jerusalem in late Twelth century.
The city, which was founded in the 4th century BC, has remnants of Helen, Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman periods. Kadifekale is on a hill 186 meters high south of the city. It is reported that Amazon women who lived in Kadifekale, formerly "Pagos", descended from the foothills of the mountain and continued their dominance here for many years.
St. Polycarp Church is the oldest structure of İzmir which is founded in the area where Konak District is located on the Mediterranean Side, Kazim Dirik Caddesi, Necatibey Boulevard and Gazi Osman Money Boulevard.