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Architecture in Russian Federation

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Red Square
Being the most recognizable symbol of Russia in the world, the glorious Red Square is the UNESCO listed World Heritage which accepts thousands of tourists each year. No wonder that this sight is a true must-visit of any Moscow trip and every adventurous globe-trotter has a picture in front of St. Basil's Cathedral. The Red Square is set in the very heart of Moscow, separating the Kitay Gorod commercial district from the Kremlin walls, and has a history as old as the post-Mongol fortress itself. The name "Krásnaya Plóshchaď" translates from Russian as "red", yet the word also means "beautiful". This ancient center of Russia's political power dates back to the end of the 13th century and has a long and rich history. Originally, it was the site of a central market square established in an area cleared by decree for the defense of Kremlin on the banks of Moskva and Neglinnaya rivers. It was also a place where various festive processions were held and thus the square was considered a sacred place. https://www.travelallrussia.com/red-square
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St. Basil s Cathedral
St. Basil’s Cathedral is Moscow’s most famous artistic work of architecture. Also called "Pokrovsky Cathedral" or "The Cathedral of Intercession of the Virgin by the Moat", it is the most recognizable Russian building. This Cathedral is to the Russians what the Eiffel Tower is to the French, an honorable symbol of their past, present, and future. The cathedral stands on the Red Square, facing the Ivory Gate Chapel. The St. Basil's Cathedral history started in 1555 by the order of Ivan IV ("Ivan the Terrible") in celebration of the defeat of Kazan, the last remaining grip of the Mongol Empire on European lands. Today there are more than 400 icons painted between the 14th and 19th centuries by the most famous schools of Novgorod and Moscow hanging on the walls. A narrow pathway leads you from one alter to another, passing through a wooden spiral staircase so well hidden in a wall, that it was only found during the 1970 restoration of the cathedral. Taking in the medieval aura and mystical spirituality of St. Basil’s imbues visitors with what can only be described as a quintessential Russian experience. https://www.travelallrussia.com/st-basil-moscow
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Bolshoi Theatre
The Bolshoi Theatre began its life as the private theatre of the Moscow proseсutor Prince Pyotr Urusov. On 28 March 1776, Empress Catherine II signed and granted the Prince the 'privilege' of organizing theatre performances, masquerades, balls and other forms of entertainment for a period of ten years. It is from this date that Moscow's Bolshoi Theatre traces its history. The Bolshoi building, which for many years now has been regarded as one of Moscow’s main sights, was opened on 20 October 1856, on Tsar Alexander II’s coronation day. On 29 October 2002 the Bolshoi was given a New Stage and it was here it presented its performances during the years the Historic Stage was undergoing massive reconstruction and refurbishment. The reconstruction project lasted from l July 2005 to 28 October 2011. As a result of this reconstruction, many lost features of the historic building were reinstated and, at the same time, it has joined the ranks of most technically equipped theatre buildings in the world. The Bolshoi Theatre is a symbol of Russia for all time. It was awarded this honor due to the major contribution it made to the history of the Russian performing arts. This history is on-going and today Bolshoi Theatre artists continue to contribute to it many bright pages. http://www.bolshoi.ru/en/about/hist/history/
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Armoury Chamber
The Armoury Chamber, a treasure-house, is a part of the Grand Kremlin Palace's complex. It is situated in the building constructed in 1851 by architect Konstantin Ton. The museum collections were based on the precious items that had been preserved for centuries in the tsars' treasury and the Patriarch's vestry. Some of the exhibits were made in the Kremlin's workshops, others were accepted as ambassadorial gifts. The museum was named after one of the oldest Kremlin's treasury stores. The Armoury Chamber preserves ancient state regalia, ceremonial royal clothes and coronation dresses, vestments of Russian Orthodox Church hierarchs, the most extensive collection of gold- and silverware made by Russian craftsmen, West European artistic silver, ceremonial arms and armour, carriages and horse ceremonial harness. The State Armoury presents more than four thousand items of applied art of Russia, European and Eastern countries of the 4th - early 20th century. The highest artistic level and particular historical and cultural value of the exhibits have made the State Armoury of the Moscow Kremlin a world-wide known museum. http://armoury-chamber.kreml.ru/en-Us/history/view/
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GUM
Today GUM lives like it once was conceived. It is ideal shopping city of Moscow that seems to live without losses and catastrophes for 120 years already. The fountain in the center of GUM was reopened and pleases visitors since 2007. This legendary construction is captured in the official chronicles of the twentieth century and in millions of private shots. They say, the sound of a shutter can be heard every three seconds here today. The legendary cinema, which went down in the history of the national movie-making, was restored. Unique illumination project was carried out on the facade. GUM-Skating rink was opened at Red Square in 2006, which at once gained the fame of the brightest ice rink of the capital. GUM is not just a store where you can buy almost everything. It is a shopping block where there is a pharmacy, bank branch, and flower shop ... It is a monument of architecture. It is a comfortable lounge area with restaurants and cafes. It is an art gallery and venue for cultural events. It is an integral part of Russian history. It is a symbol of Moscow and it is the closest place to the Kremlin, where you can feel yourself in Europe! https://gumrussia.com/
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Wooden Palace of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich
The wooden palace of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich with 270 rooms decorated with paintings and carvings was built in 1667 without using any fasten materials, nails or hooks. It consisted of 26 buildings connected with each other by passages and halls. The whole complex was divided into male and female parts. The male part included ceremonial chambers, chambers of the Tsar and of his sons, while the female part belonged to the Tsarina and to the Tsar’s daughters. https://www.russiaeguide.com/wooden-palace-of-tsar-alexei-mikhailovich.html
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Peterhof
One of St. Petersburg's most famous and popular visitor attractions, the palace and park at Peterhof (also known as Petrodvorets) are often referred to as "the Russian Versailles", although many visitors conclude that the comparison does a disservice to the grandeur and scope of this majestic estate. Versailles was, however, the inspiration for Peter the Great's desire to build an imperial palace in the suburbs of his new city and, after an aborted attempt at Strelna, Peterhof - which means "Peter's Court" in German - became the site for the Tsar's Monplaisir Palace, and then of the original Grand Palace. The estate was equally popular with Peter's daughter, Empress Elizabeth, who ordered the expansion of the Grand Palace and greatly extended the park and the famous system of fountains, including the truly spectacular Grand Cascade. Improvements to the park continued throughout the 18th and 19th centuries. Catherine the Great, after leaving her own mark on the park, moved the court to Pushkin, but Peterhof once again became the official Imperial Residence in the reign of Nicholas I, who ordered the building of the modest Cottage Palace in 1826. Like almost all St. Petersburg's suburban estates, Peterhof was ravaged by German troops during the Second World War. It was, however, one of the first to be resurrected and, thanks to the work of military engineers as well as over 1,000 volunteers, the Lower Park opened to the public in 1945 and the facades of the Grand Palace were restored in 1952. The name was also de-Germanicized in 1944, becoming Petrodvorets, the name under which the surrounding town is still known. The palace and park are once again known as Peterhof. http://www.saint-petersburg.com/peterhof/
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Church of the Savior on Spilled Blood
This Church was built on the site where Emperor Alexander II was severely wounded and died in March 1881.The church was built from 1883 till 1907. The construction was funded by the imperial family. Architecturally, the Cathedral differs from St. Petersburg's other structures. The Church contains over 7500 square meters of mosaics—according to its restorers, more than any other church in the world. The walls and ceilings inside the Church are completely covered in intricately detailed mosaics — the main pictures being biblical scenes or figures — but with very fine patterned borders setting off each picture. http://www.visit-petersburg.ru/en/showplace/195645/
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Palace Bridge
Although it is only a 20th century creation, Palace Bridge is undoubtedly one of the most famous sights of St. Petersburg, and is quite literally unmissable for most visitors to the city, who will find themselves continually using the bridge to move between Palace Square, home to the Winter Palace and the Hermitage Museum, and the numerous historic attractions on Vasilevskiy Ostrov. Despite the grandeur and extravagance of the surrounding architecture, Palace Bridge itself is a relatively simple structure, comprising five cast-iron spans resting on granite-clad, packed-rubble piers. Height of the bridge was strictly limited, so as not to obstruct the view of the monuments around. The central span of the bridge splits into two wings, which are raised through an angle of over 45° to allow ships to pass up the Neva River, and the view of the golden spire of the Ss. Peter and Paul Cathedral between the two raised wings is one of the most widespread and memorable images of St. Petersburg. It also makes Palace Embankment the centre of nightly celebrations during the White Nights, when thousands of locals and visitors gather to watch Palace Bridge open in the small hours. http://www.saint-petersburg.com/bridges/unmissable-palace-bridge/
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Temple of All Religions
The Temple of All Religions is a cascade of buildings, combining various styles of buildings of different cultures and religions into one. This is the only place in the world where you can marvel at the Orthodox and Catholic churches, the Muslim mosque, the Jewish synagogue and the Buddhist temple harmoniously coexisting all as one building. The temple is decorated with all the iconic elements of world religions, as well as symbols of extinct civilizations. Visitors are invited to visit the rooms of Jesus Christ, Buddha, the Catholic Hall, the Egyptian Hall, the theatre hall, the picture gallery, and the tea room. The unique temple can be clearly seen from ships sailing along the Volga River, as well as from the windows of the nearby passing trains. https://visit-tatarstan.com/en/places/religion/hram_vseh_religij/
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Kazan Kremlin
It is impossible to come to Kazan and miss the Kremlin. It majestically stands on a hill which, according to legend, was once home to the fire-breathing Zilant dragon, guarding the underground kingdom. Today, the Kremlin complex spanning across 150 thousand square metres, houses the residence of the President of the Republic, various administration buildings and the "Kazan Kremlin" Reserve Museum among others. In 2000, this architectural and historical site was added to the list of World Cultural and Natural Heritage sites of UNESCO https://visit-tatarstan.com/en/places/attractions/kazanskiy-kreml/
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Epiphany Cathedral's Bell Tower
On the pedestrian Bauman street, there is a place from which an incredible view of the central part of Kazan can be seen. This is an observation deck on the bell tower of the Epiphany Cathedral, the tallest ancient building in the city stands 74 metres tall. According to the Archpriest Alexei Derzhavin - abbot of the cathedral, the bell tower was made up of 2,000,000 bricks. Inside it, the Church of John the Baptist, the patron saint of heaven patron Ivan Krivonosov, was opened. The cathedral as well as the observation deck was closed down in the 1930s, and was only restored in 2016. https://visit-tatarstan.com/en/places/attractions/kolokolnya_bogoyavlenskogo_sobora/
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Kazan Family Centre
The Kazan Family Centre is a new wedding palace built on the bank of Kazanka River in 2013. The double-story observation deck on the roof, 32 metres up, is a great place to see the city and truly feel its scale. The panoramic view of the riverbed of Kazanka River, Volga, The Kremlin, and the old and new parts of Kazan can all be seen from here. A multi-level green lawn stretches across the front of the centre, with benches where you can sit and enjoy the view. In 2016 a sculptural composition "On I Ona" ("He and She" in Russian) by Dasha Namdakova was erected here. A pair of zilants (city symbols), leopards (symbols of the republic) and their cubs stand guard over family values, embodying the fidelity and strength of marriage ties. In the evening, the building lights up with red lights: creating a feeling of burning, everlasting love. After the building’s construction, its viewing platform has become a popular place for photographers, who come here to take amazing photos and film the panoramic views of the city. https://visit-tatarstan.com/en/places/attractions/centr_semi_kazan/
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Old Tatar Quarter
The Old Tatar Quarter (“Staro-Tatarskaya Sloboda”) is the soul of the historical part of Kazan. With its streets preserved from the medieval period, this is considered to be the main area of the Tatar city culture. Dozens of monuments have found refuge on the shores of Lake Kaban and Bulak ducts, in the heart of the capital of Tatarstan. The Old Tatar Quarter is spread over an area of 87.95 hectares, and you will find a total of 75 monuments of history and culture of the 18th – 20th centuries throughout it, which form the settlement itself. Among these are the houses of Yunusov-Apanaev, Shamil, Marjani, Kayum Nasyri, Shamil Yusupov and many others. The long list of masterpieces of architecture, however, should not deter you from simply enjoying the atmosphere of this historical place – there is much more to see than simply buildings. In the 19th century, an Oriental Club functioned in this settlement, where famous poets would read their works and some of the very first Tatar plays were staged. Mosques that were built here, are now known around the world - Apanaeva, Blue, Galeev, Burnaevskaya, and Sennaya (Nurulla) Mosques. Other places also decorate the settlement - a literary museum of Tatar poet Gabdulla Tukay, the house-museum of educator and scientist Kayum Nasyri, Tatar Academic Theatre named after Galiasgar Kamal and the “Tatarskaya Usadba” hotel and restaurant complex, which also includes a museum of Tatar life, a gallery of art crafts and a souvenir shop. And, of course some of the more modern places to visit here – for example the Chak-chak Museum (Tatar national delicacy) eagerly await visitors. Here, you can drink a cup of tea with oriental sweets and learn the secrets of ancient recipes of national dishes. https://visit-tatarstan.com/en/places/attractions/staro-tatarskaya_sloboda/
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National Museum of the Republic of Tatarstan
The National Museum of the Republic of Tatarstan is the leading museum center of Tatarstan, one of the largest cultural and historical museums of the Volga region and the oldest museum of the republic. http://visit-tatarstan.com/locations/sights/museums/nationalmuseumrt
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Pedestrian street of Bauman
The city's atmosphere is created by its streets, especially pedestrian streets. In Kazan there is such a street, beautiful, crowded, where every day you can meet musicians, and in the summer even dancers. http://visit-tatarstan.com/locations/sights/places/baumanstreet
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Church of Ilya the Prophet
Church of Ilya the Prophet is a real gem of ancient Russian architecture. This simple in form, strict and solemn church with five cupolas is extremely beautiful. http://russiatrek.org/yaroslavl-city
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Church of St. John the Baptist
Church of St. John the Baptist is one of the most famous monuments of the Yaroslavl architecture. It is a monument of history and culture of world importance included in the UNESCO cultural heritage list. http://russiatrek.org/blog/cities/amazing-15-domed-church-of-st-john-the-baptist-in-yaroslavl/
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Transfiguration Cathedral
The five-story bell tower of the Savior's Transfiguration Cathedral is decorated in the style of early classicism and decorated with baroque elements. The belltower of the cathedral impresses with its magnificence and considerable height - 94 meters. http://obzor-mest.ru/dostoprimechatelnosti-rybinska/
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Vvedenskiy Tolga Convent
Vvedenskiy Tolga Convent is located on the outskirts of Yaroslavl, on the left bank of the Volga River. You can easily get here by water-bus from the city center. http://russiatrek.org/blog/travel/beautiful-vvedenskiy-tolga-convent-in-yaroslavl/
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Rastorguyev-Kharitonov Mansion
One of the most significant 18-19th century architectural monuments in Ekaterinburg, the largest and oldest mansion ensemble of the city. Rastorguyev-Kharitonov’s mansion ensemble is a true architectural gem of Ekaterinburg. The estate occupying the entire northern slope of Voznesenskaya Gorka (Ascension Hill) includes the main house, wings, fences and gates, stables, and a large park http://its.ekburg.ru/en/sights/usadba-rastorgueva-haritonova/
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Church on the Blood
The memorial church was consecrated in 2003 at the site of execution of the last Russian emperor Nicholas II and his family. One of the largest churches in Ekaterinburg and pilgrimage destination for people from all over Russia, it was built in 2000-2003 at the site of execution of the last Russian emperor Nicholas II and his family, which took place on the night of July 16-17, 1918. This is the third church-on-the-blood in Russia after the ones in Uglich (built on the spot of tsarevich Dmitry’s murder in 1591) and St. Petersburg (built on the spot where Emperor Alexander II was assassinated in 1881). http://its.ekburg.ru/en/sights/hram-na-krovi-vo-imya-vseh-svyatyh-v-zemle-rossiyskoy-prosiyavshih/
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Leaning Tower of Nevyansk
The leaning tower, constructed with the sponsorship of the Demidov dynasty, is the symbol of Nevyansk and a monument of industrial architecture.The tower has several levels and floors. Earlier it hosted a lab for examining the content of manufactured iron, the factory's archives, the chancellor's office, and the lockup cell. Today it contains museum exhibits. Akinfiy Demidov's office, which served as a prison in Soviet times, was located on the second floor.To this day there is still a so-called «listening room». If you stand in one corner of the room, you can hear the tiniest whisper of people in the opposite corner. In addition, the Nevyansk tower has preserved its 18th-century clock tower. This chiming clock was manufactured in the 1730s by an English clockmaker, Richard Phelps, and had needed repairs only three times since. There was a time when the clock could play up to 20 musical pieces. Today, every 15 minutes the clock chimes the melody «Glory to You» from the opera «A Life for the Tsar».Another feature of the tower is the metal steeple with a weathercock, bearing the stamped coat-of-arms of the Demidovs. The steeple is grounded. It served as a lightning rod a quarter of a century before Benjamin Franklin invented the first lightning rod in 1725. https://eng.russia.travel/objects/306693/
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Opera and Ballet Theatre
The city opera hall was designed by V. Semenov and opened on September 12, 1912 with M. Glinka’s opera “A Life for the Tsar”. Ekaterinburg Opera and Ballet Theatre is one of the oldest in Russia. The theatre construction (based on the design by V. N. Semenov from Saint Petersburg who won the all-Russian open contest) began in 1903 and was led by local architect K. T. Babykin. The grand opening was held on September 12, 1912 – Glinka’s opera “A Life for the Tsar” was staged. Riccardo Drigo’s "The Magic Flute" became the first ballet production of a new theater in 1914 https://uralopera.com/
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Church of Nativity of Most Holy Mother of God
One of the most beautiful religious buildings in Nizhny Novgorod, the 18th century architectural monument. http://www.nizhnynovgorod.com/tourism/sightseeing/city_sights/church_of_nativity_of_most_holy_mother_of_god/
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Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin
Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin is a historical centre of Nizhny Novgorod, the city heart, and the place that the history of Nizhny Novgorod was started. Nowadays Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin is said as the grandest and the most majestic medieval fortress extant in the central Russia. http://www.nizhnynovgorod.com/tourism/sightseeing/city_sights/nizhny_novgorod_kremlin/
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The Memorial Museum of Vladimir Lenin
The Memorial Museum of Vladimir Lenin opened in 1941. The unique exhibition of the museum introduces the life and work of Lenin on the background of the political history of the Russian Empire in the late 19th - the early 20th centuries, his contemporaries, allies, opponents. http://russiatrek.org/ulyanovsk-city
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Ulyanovsk Local History Museum
Ulyanovsk Local History Museum named after I.A.Goncharov, located in the house-monument to I.A.Goncharov, was founded in 1895. The building was designed by the renowned Simbirsk architect A.A.Shode specifically for the museum in 1912-1916. http://russiatrek.org/ulyanovsk-city
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Cathedral of the Assumption
The cathedral was built on Soborny (Cathedral) Hill in memory of the heroic defense of Smolensk of 1609-1611. The construction was completed in 1772. http://russiatrek.org/smolensk-city
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Smolensk fortress wall
Smolensk fortress wall (also known as Smolensk kremlin) is a defensive structure built in 1595-1602. The length of the walls is 6.5 km (only less than half of walls and towers are preserved). http://russiatrek.org/smolensk-city
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Teremok
“Teremok” is a historical and architectural complex located in the former estate of the artist and patron of arts M.K. Tenisheva in the village of Flenovo, about 19 kilometers from Smolensk. http://russiatrek.org/blog/art/historical-and-architectural-complex-teremok/
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Cathedral of Saint Demetrius
Tourists coming to the city are attracted by the white stone monuments of pre-Mongolian architecture (UNESCO World Heritage Sites).Cathedral of Saint Demetrius (1194-1197) located at Sobornaya Square. http://russiatrek.org/vladimir-city
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The Dormition Cathedral
The Dormition (Uspenskiy) Cathedral in Vladimir is an outstanding monument of white-stone architecture of pre-Mongol Russia (the 12th century). Today, it is the cathedral of the Russian Orthodox Church and the National Museum. http://russiatrek.org/blog/travel/the-dormition-cathedral-in-vladimir/
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