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Smolensk

Population:320,994
Time Zone:UTC+3
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Smolensk fortress wall
Smolensk fortress wall (also known as Smolensk kremlin) is a defensive structure built in 1595-1602. The length of the walls is 6.5 km (only less than half of walls and towers are preserved).
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Cathedral of the Assumption
The cathedral was built on Soborny (Cathedral) Hill in memory of the heroic defense of Smolensk of 1609-1611. The construction was completed in 1772.
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Teremok
“Teremok” is a historical and architectural complex located in the former estate of the artist and patron of arts M.K. Tenisheva in the village of Flenovo, about 19 kilometers from Smolensk.
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Golitsynsky Pond
Golitsynsky Pond consists of two parts: the small and the big ponds. Founded in 1954, the complex has always been one of the most romantic places in the park. Golitsinsky pond changed its title and at the time of the Sovient Union was renamed as Pionersky. During the reconstruction of the Park, Golitsinsky Pond has received its original name. The main attraction of the Pond is a small "Dancing island". Currently this island is abandoned, however in 1930's one of the most beautiful stages of the Park located there. On the brim there used to be the amphitheater for 700 spectators while the island served as a platform for the plays. Repertoire was quite diverse - theatre plays and ballet, opera, musical acts and other different performances. The Bolshoy Theatre artists also gave their performances here. Boat renting is also available. The territory of the Pond is quite big so it's possible to move easily around it using the boat.
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Armoury Chamber
The Armoury Chamber, a treasure-house, is a part of the Grand Kremlin Palace's complex. It is situated in the building constructed in 1851 by architect Konstantin Ton. The museum collections were based on the precious items that had been preserved for centuries in the tsars' treasury and the Patriarch's vestry. Some of the exhibits were made in the Kremlin's workshops, others were accepted as ambassadorial gifts. The museum was named after one of the oldest Kremlin's treasury stores. The Armoury Chamber preserves ancient state regalia, ceremonial royal clothes and coronation dresses, vestments of Russian Orthodox Church hierarchs, the most extensive collection of gold- and silverware made by Russian craftsmen, West European artistic silver, ceremonial arms and armour, carriages and horse ceremonial harness. The State Armoury presents more than four thousand items of applied art of Russia, European and Eastern countries of the 4th - early 20th century. The highest artistic level and particular historical and cultural value of the exhibits have made the State Armoury of the Moscow Kremlin a world-wide known museum.
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Wooden Palace of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich
The wooden palace of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich with 270 rooms decorated with paintings and carvings was built in 1667 without using any fasten materials, nails or hooks. It consisted of 26 buildings connected with each other by passages and halls. The whole complex was divided into male and female parts. The male part included ceremonial chambers, chambers of the Tsar and of his sons, while the female part belonged to the Tsarina and to the Tsar’s daughters.
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Tretyakov Gallery
The Tretyakov Gallery is the main museum of Russian national art, reflecting its unique contribution to world culture. It is a hospitable museum that is known for its rich collection and variety of presented ideas. Check out the best works of Russian art from different eras and authors. On Currently the collection includes more than 180 000 pieces and is regularly updated. The Collection presents major masterpieces from the permanent exhibition. Also visit The New Tretyakov Gallery which presents the most completed in our country permanent exhibition of the art of the 20th century in all its diversity - avant - garde, socialistic realism and art of the "austere style" and "underground" and some new art trends. Here are held not only large-scale retrospectives of great Russian artists, but also showed experimental exhibitions of young authors. A lecture - hall and a creative workshop offer a wide range of theoretical knowledge and practical trainings about the art of the 20th and early 21st century for children, students and adults.
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Lenin
Lenin’s mausoleum in Moscow’s Red Square offers up one of Moscow’s most macabre attractions and perhaps the most famous “modern mummy” in the world. Frozen in time, Vladimir Ilych Lenin’s embalmed body lays within a red granite and black labratorite step-pyramid. Here visitors may gaze on it in the dark, cool of the tomb. The sarcophagus is kept at a constant temperature of 16° C (61° F) and humidity of 80 - 90 percent. Weekly, a mild bleach is used to fight discoloring fungus and mold on Lenin’s skin, and every eighteen months the corpse undergoes a chemical bath of glycerol and potassium for thirty days while the mausoleum is closed. During this time, Lenin’s clothes are washed and carefully ironed. And every three years, Lenin receives a new suit. Lenin can be viewed for five minutes at a time in small groups under the watchful eye of guards in every corner of the room.
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Red Square
Being the most recognizable symbol of Russia in the world, the glorious Red Square is the UNESCO listed World Heritage which accepts thousands of tourists each year. No wonder that this sight is a true must-visit of any Moscow trip and every adventurous globe-trotter has a picture in front of St. Basil's Cathedral. The Red Square is set in the very heart of Moscow, separating the Kitay Gorod commercial district from the Kremlin walls, and has a history as old as the post-Mongol fortress itself. The name "Krásnaya Plóshchaď" translates from Russian as "red", yet the word also means "beautiful". This ancient center of Russia's political power dates back to the end of the 13th century and has a long and rich history. Originally, it was the site of a central market square established in an area cleared by decree for the defense of Kremlin on the banks of Moskva and Neglinnaya rivers. It was also a place where various festive processions were held and thus the square was considered a sacred place.
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Bolshoi Theatre
The Bolshoi Theatre began its life as the private theatre of the Moscow proseсutor Prince Pyotr Urusov. On 28 March 1776, Empress Catherine II signed and granted the Prince the 'privilege' of organizing theatre performances, masquerades, balls and other forms of entertainment for a period of ten years. It is from this date that Moscow's Bolshoi Theatre traces its history. The Bolshoi building, which for many years now has been regarded as one of Moscow’s main sights, was opened on 20 October 1856, on Tsar Alexander II’s coronation day. On 29 October 2002 the Bolshoi was given a New Stage and it was here it presented its performances during the years the Historic Stage was undergoing massive reconstruction and refurbishment. The reconstruction project lasted from l July 2005 to 28 October 2011. As a result of this reconstruction, many lost features of the historic building were reinstated and, at the same time, it has joined the ranks of most technically equipped theatre buildings in the world. The Bolshoi Theatre is a symbol of Russia for all time. It was awarded this honor due to the major contribution it made to the history of the Russian performing arts. This history is on-going and today Bolshoi Theatre artists continue to contribute to it many bright pages.
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GUM
Today GUM lives like it once was conceived. It is ideal shopping city of Moscow that seems to live without losses and catastrophes for 120 years already. The fountain in the center of GUM was reopened and pleases visitors since 2007. This legendary construction is captured in the official chronicles of the twentieth century and in millions of private shots. They say, the sound of a shutter can be heard every three seconds here today. The legendary cinema, which went down in the history of the national movie-making, was restored. Unique illumination project was carried out on the facade. GUM-Skating rink was opened at Red Square in 2006, which at once gained the fame of the brightest ice rink of the capital. GUM is not just a store where you can buy almost everything. It is a shopping block where there is a pharmacy, bank branch, and flower shop ... It is a monument of architecture. It is a comfortable lounge area with restaurants and cafes. It is an art gallery and venue for cultural events. It is an integral part of Russian history. It is a symbol of Moscow and it is the closest place to the Kremlin, where you can feel yourself in Europe!
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St. Basil s Cathedral
St. Basil’s Cathedral is Moscow’s most famous artistic work of architecture. Also called "Pokrovsky Cathedral" or "The Cathedral of Intercession of the Virgin by the Moat", it is the most recognizable Russian building. This Cathedral is to the Russians what the Eiffel Tower is to the French, an honorable symbol of their past, present, and future. The cathedral stands on the Red Square, facing the Ivory Gate Chapel. The St. Basil's Cathedral history started in 1555 by the order of Ivan IV ("Ivan the Terrible") in celebration of the defeat of Kazan, the last remaining grip of the Mongol Empire on European lands. Today there are more than 400 icons painted between the 14th and 19th centuries by the most famous schools of Novgorod and Moscow hanging on the walls. A narrow pathway leads you from one alter to another, passing through a wooden spiral staircase so well hidden in a wall, that it was only found during the 1970 restoration of the cathedral. Taking in the medieval aura and mystical spirituality of St. Basil’s imbues visitors with what can only be described as a quintessential Russian experience.
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Pskov-Caves Monastery
The Holy Dormition Pskovo-Pechersky Monastery is one of the largest and most famous monasteries in Russia with a long history.
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Palace of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania
The reconstructed Palace of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania, the former political, diplomatic, cultural center of the State, was one of the most famous in Europe in the 15th-17th centures and was demolished in the beginning of the 19th century. This Palace is excellent located just in the heart of Vilnius, within the confines of Lower Castle. Nowadays the Gothic, Renaissance and Early Baroque halls of this multifunctional Museum are ideally applicable to organize a different size and content public events, official visits, conferences, meetings, seminars, concerts, performances, receptions and other.
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Pilies Street
Pilies Street is the oldest and most flamboyant street in the Old Town of Vilnius. The street appeared in place of the former road from Vilnius Castle to the south, towards Poland and Russia. This was the main road to the castle, with its branches finally turning into side streets. The name of Pilies Street was mentioned in historical annals as early as 1530.
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Cathedral Basilica
The Cathedral of St. Stanislav and St. Vladislav is the most important place of worship for Lithuania’s Catholics, and the venue for the country’s main Christian and national festivities.
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Pharmacy Museum On Podil
The narrow streets of the ancient Podol shelter one of the most unusual and interesting museums of Ukraine's capital, the Pharmacy Museum, whose unique exposition is devoted to the history of the pharmacy. It is located in the building where the German pharmacist Johann Heiter opened Kyiv's first private drugstore in 1728. After Heiter's death, his son-in-law Georg Bunge inherited the pharmacy business and made the drugstore very popular among Kyiv's residents. It could brag about one of the largest assortments of drugs in the city - about a thousand names. All drugs that were sold here (ointments, pills, mixtures) were made in the pharmacy's laboratory only from natural components: healing herbs, minerals, shells, animal blood and the poison of insects and reptiles. In addition, the Bunge's drugstore, as it was nicknamed by the Kyiv locals, was intended for the very broad sections of the public: it had two sections and respectively to separate drug registries, for poor and wealthy townspeople. Of course, the structure and quality of the drugs were different. Few centuries ago pharmacies sold not only drugs, but also creams, powder, perfumes, tooth powder, and even ink, cans and tubes, which are now the unique exhibits of the Kyiv Pharmacy Museum.
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St. Michaels Cathedral
This cathedral is an outstanding architectural monument of the 19th century, one of the oldest stone religious buildings in Zhitomir. In Soviet times, the building housed a puppet theater.
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Cathedral of St. Sophia
The Cathedral of St. Sophia, where the princes of Kyiv were crowned in the years of Kyiv's grandeur, has outstanding mosaics and frescoes dating back to the 11th century. Overlooking the old section of Kyiv, Podol, stands the Ukrainian Baroque church of St. Andrew, much beloved by Ukrainians.
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Khreshchatik street
The modern center with surviving parts of the old city are on the hilly west, or right bank, of the Dnipro River. The main street, Khreshchatik, runs between two steep hills. Parallel about half a kilometer west, is vulytsya Volodymyrska, the main street of the Old Kyiv area (Staryj Kyiv).
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National Opera & Ballet Theater of Ukraine
The history of the National Opera of Ukraine was initiated in 1867, when in Kiev, one of the major administrative centers of the then Russian Empire, after a long petition the government opened a permanent opera troupe. There was a first outside the capitals - Petersburg and Moscow - a musical theater.
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Museum of Toys
The Kyiv Toy Museum is a truly unique place, interesting for both, children and adults. For the first ones it is an opportunity to plunge into the fairy world, where hundreds of different heroes live, for the latter ones - a chance to feel nagging nostalgia, and at the same time to learn many interesting facts about the history of toys as an integral part of the country's culture. The Toy Museum, opened in 2005, is one of the youngest in the capital. Nevertheless, its impressive collection numbering over 10 thousand exhibits exists over 80 years! It is based on the items that were gathered for the toy exhibition, which took place back in 1936. Today, the museum's exposition visually demonstrates the history of national toy production and is the vivid evidence that Ukraine rightly occupied the second place among the Soviet republics in volumes and quality of manufactured children toys. Museum shelves are 'inhabited' by hundreds of different dolls and teddy animals, technical and construction toys, as well as a unique collection of board, printed games. Besides commercial items, museum funds include exclusive author's works by soviet puppet-makers and authentic collection of Ukrainian folk toys.
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Bessarabian Market
The Bessarabian Market, or just Bessarabka, as it is usually referred to by Kyiv residents, is the central and the most famous covered market of Ukraine's capital that is reckoned among the oldest in the country. It's an unusual building in Ukrainian art nouveau style was built 100 years ago on the square adjoined to the Kyiv main street and is still one of the capital's most interesting constructions. In the second half of the 19th century, the land, where the market stands today, was unsightly city outskirts. But soon, the square was founded and numerous merchants from all over the world started to come here. In the early 20th century, the adjoined to the square streets, particularly Khreshchatyk, were rapidly lined up with buildings obtaining European elegant look, and the vicinity of the absurd chaotic marketplace seemed more and more inappropriate. One of the prominent Kyiv residents of that time called the Bessarabian Market 'a purulent blister on the tip of the beautiful classic nose.' It was then that the city authorities decided to create a civilized covered market in this place. However, due to lack of money (construction demanded a fantastic sum for those times), idea's implementation was postponed.
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Kyiv Fortress
The Kyiv Fortress is one of the most important and interesting military monuments in the Ukrainian capital, well-known far beyond the country’s borders. It is the largest earthen fortress in Europe and the second-largest earthen fortress in the world. The museum exhibitions housed there and the fortification complex itself are among the most visited places of interest in Kyiv – every year it welcomes about one hundred thousand tourists. The Kyiv Fortress, also known as Nova Pechersk Fortress, was built on a site of Old Pechersk Fortress, walled around the Kyiv Pechersk Lavra. It was erected by the order of Emperor Peter the Great in the first half of the 18th century. It contained four main fortifications, as well as dozens of defensive areas such as towers, walls, underground passages, powder warehouses, arsenals, barracks, and even the castle prison. Then the Kyiv Fortress featured the so-called hand-made tsunamis for city defence from the riverside. It was composed of two dams and two large pits, which could be filled with water within hours to defeat the enemy fleet with a powerful wave.
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NSC Olimpiyskiy
Located in the very heart of Kyiv, the National Sports Complex "Olimpiyskiy" is the main arena of Ukraine and one of the biggest stadia in Europe. After hosting the final match, in particular, and Euro-2012, in general, the renovated venue became one of the most emblematic sights of the Ukrainian capital. Currently, the multifaceted arena holds both top football and athletic competitions, as well as conferences, exhibitions and concerts. Not only sports fans, but those who are interested in contemporary architecture may enjoy a visit to the Olympic Stadium in Kyiv. Its history dates back to 1923 when the Red Stadium Trotsky was opened to the public. It was a simple venue intended for hosting football matches. Shortly, the arena was remodelled: athletic tracks, showers, lockers, etc. were built. The first large-scale renovation of the stadium was scheduled in the middle of 1930s when Kyiv had become the official capital of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Ukraine. The 50.000-seater stadium in accordance with all requirements was planned then. The refurbished sports arena was due to be opened on June 22, 1941, however, its renovation was postponed for 5 years because of an outburst of the II World War.
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Mamajeva Sloboda
The outdoor museum of architecture and life Mamajeva Sloboda is situated not far from the city center, near one of the capital’s picturesque parks. It is an authentic cultural complex that reproduces Cossack settlement of 17th – 18th century. Not only original architectural buildings of Cossack age, but also inimitable atmosphere and spirit of that time were recreated there. The culture and entertainment complex Mamajeva Sloboda is situated in the historical place – at the source of the Lybid River. These lands once belonged to the St. Michael's Golden-Domed Cathedral and was occupied by monastery apiary with farm and pond. Later, gardens were planted and a park was laid out in this area, but the ethnic saksen with neat Ukrainian huts under golden straw roofs didn’t appear there until 2009. The museum got its name in honour of the legendary Cossack Mamai – one of the Ukrainian Cossack folklore’s most popular characters, whose image could be found next to the icons in almost every house at Cossack times.
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Sangaste Castle
Sangaste Castle is one of the 21 Southern Estonian places worth discovering that are marked with a yellow National Geographic window; if you are interested in culture and history, it is definitely worth a visit. Sangaste castle and park were fashioned after the famous Windsor castle in England. The magnificent halls, architecture and history of the castle make this a good place for a big wedding, get-togethers or spending the night in a genuine castle. The castle restaurant serves local food and real rye vodka made from Sangaste rye. In addition to the castle, the stables, dairy, barn, water tower and arboretum are also open for visitors.
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Oleg Antonov State Aviation Museum
Situated next to Zhulyany Airport (Kyiv), the Aviation Museum is one of the largest museums in the capital and is reckoned among the largest historical and technical museums of Ukraine. At its opening in 2003, museum’s exposition numbered thirty aircraft, and now more than seventy exhibits – helicopters, planes, as well as samples of aircraft armoury, unmanned aircraft and engines – can be seen on its territory of almost 20 hectares. Presented machines include both widespread and rare ones. There are also exhibits that exist only in a single copy, such as Soviet pilot plane with airborne early-warning radar An-71. In addition, you can see the first Soviet airliner and the famous MiG-25, which set an absolute world record for flight altitude – 37 km. Museum’s exhibits are arranged according to topics, design offices, and their role in history. The Kyiv Aviation Museum presents products of almost all the leading aviation design offices of the Soviet period – Tupolev, Yakovlev, Ilyushin, Antonov, Sukhoi, Mikoyan-Gurevich, Kamov, Mil, Beriev. Some collections of planes and helicopters are reckoned among the most complete in the world at that. Exclusive items include the first prototype Il-86, the first Il-18 and Tu-104 of mass production, preseries Tu-134, as well as Tu-22M0 from the test batch.
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AHHAA Science Centre
Want to surprise yourself? The AHHAA Science Centre offers science, excitement, adventure and useful skills, as well as a fun time for everyone. Our centre is an attractive learning environment in which you are bound to learn something new. The majority of our exhibits are 'hands-on', so you can try everything yourself, whether it be the planetarium, the school laboratory pilot programme, creating educational materials or the science theatre. You can even host your own birthday party here.
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Castle Radomysl
The historical and cultural complex “Castle Radomysl” is a private museum complex located in the town of Radomyshl in the Zhytomyr region, about 100 km from Kiev. It was created by the Ukrainian medical doctor Olga Bogomolets.
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Small House of the Tartu Vanemuine Theatre
The art nouveau Small House of the Vanemuine Theatre was built from 1914 to 1918 (architect A Eichhorn). The decision to build a new, modern theatre building was made after the building of the summer theatre of the German Society of Artisans that used to be located in this spot perished in a fire.
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Tartu Cathedral
Tartu Cathedral, located on the beautiful Toomemägi Hill, is one of the largest churches in Estonia. It is also the only mediaeval church with two towers in Estonia. The construction of the church started in the 13th century and the church was fully completed in the beginning of the 16th century. The church towers were the last things to be finished. During the Livonian War, the church was destroyed and since then, it has not operated as a church. The ruins of the Tartu Cathedral are one of the most prominent examples of brick-Gothic buildings in Old Livonia. The University of Tartu Museum, which introduces the history of science and university education, operates there. In addition to the museum, there is also the Toompood store, and visitors can also go to the cathedral’s towers, which offer beautiful views.
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Tartu Toy Museum
Tartu Toy Museum, situated in the Old Town of Tartu, takes adults back to the brighter days of their childhood and offers children plenty of interesting things to see and do. The permanent exhibition displays toys that Estonian children have played with throughout the years. Artist-made dolls, souvenir dolls of different nations, and Finno-Ugric traditional toys are also exhibited. Playrooms and workshops are also open. You can see puppets from Estonian puppet films and temporary exhibitions in the outbuilding. The museum also has a theatre building named ’Teatri kodu’ (The Home of Theatre) with a theatre hall, a museum of puppets, and a children’s studio.
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Upside Down House
What to do with your family, children, friends, guests, or colleagues in Tartu? Are you looking for new experiences and great photos? You have come to the right place! The Upside Down House is an exciting and dizzying experience where all of this is possible. The Upside Down House has furniture, a refrigerator, and everything else which is usually found on the floor – but here, they are on the ceiling. Well, actually, they are on the floor, but here, the ceiling is the floor. But wait – maybe it is you that is upside down? The house is also slightly sloped to test your balance. All of this is confusing, funny, and exciting :) The visit takes about 30 minutes – during this time, you will experience the house fully and are able to take cool pictures as well!
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University of Tartu Botanical Gardens
The University of Tartu Botanical Garden offers study programmes and excursions for visitors of all ages. There are more than 10,000 species and varieties of plants in the garden. In addition to natural plants, including rare protected plants, we introduce new decorative plants. In the greenhouses, rainforest and desert plants can be seen. It is the oldest botanical garden in the Baltic States, operating for more than 200 years in the same location. The garden is designed by world-renowned botanists, professors Ledebour and Bunge. Guests can visit the greenhouses with a ticket, but the garden is open for everyone for free. There is a playground for children.
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A. Le Coq Beer Museum
Tartu is the birthplace of beer brewing in Estonia and it has been a beer city for almost 1,000 years. A beer museum was opened on the territory of the A. Le Coq Brewery in 2003 to introduce the history of industrial beer brewing. It also provides the most thorough overview of the history of beer in Estonia, its culture, and origin story. Almost 2,000 items are exhibited in the malt tower built in 1898, including an original bottle of Imperial Extra Double Stout from the year 1869. All museum visits end at the museum pub, where guests can sample A. Le Coq’s beverages.